Chapter 22: Industrial clusters in global networks
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Industrial clusters are known globally for the power of their local connections. Yet, external openness and connections to global knowledge and innovation networks are also relevant for industrial clusters to avoid phenomena of entropic death and negative lock-in and to allow local competencies to be nurtured by knowledge flows from non-local sources. This chapter aims to provide an overview on three strands of scholarly research that have contributed to understanding different dimensions of a cluster’s openness to global networks and its impacts on innovation. The chapter discusses international development studies on global value chains, international business (and connected international and development economics) research on technological spillovers of multinational enterprises and, finally, geography of innovation perspectives and work in economic geography on technological gatekeepers in industrial clusters. The chapter concludes by integrating these three strands of literature and proposing an agenda for future research.

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