National Innovation Systems, Social Inclusion and Development
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National Innovation Systems, Social Inclusion and Development

The Latin American Experience

Edited by Gabriela Dutrénit and Judith Sutz

The book has a strong theoretical foundation with empirical illustrations from diverse Latin American countries. As a whole, it offers a comprehensive exploration of the foundations of the theory of National Innovation Systems. The authors explore the particular problems that many Latin American countries have faced when trying to build innovation systems associated with development strategies, particularly those that take into account social inclusion.
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Chapter 7: Knowledge policies for inclusive development: lessons from Uruguay

Santiago Alzugaray, Maria Goñi, Leticia Mederos and Sofia Robaina


This chapter analyses the possible role of certain knowledge policies for the construction and consolidation of a trajectory towards inclusive development. The conception of this role is inspired by recent proposals, the centre of which is that knowledge and innovation can, and should, directly contribute to building one of the pillars of inclusive development: social inclusion of all people. Although these problems as presented include actors, relationships and structural conditions that have been discussed in depth in the literature, new configurations, proposals and arguments have been included, as well as clearly indicating requirements related to public policy. These presentations have permeated the political orientation of Uruguay, therefore the idea that it is necessary and pertinent to link science and technology with social inclusion has recently been gaining ground, at least in the formal context. Such guidance has resulted in changes to science, technology and innovation (STI) policy, of which we will now analyse two concrete cases: the National Strategic Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation (PENCTI by its Spanish acronym) at a national level, and the Second Reform at a university level. Both these experiences have followed parallel paths but share a formalised regulatory vocation designed to direct research agendas towards the solution of social problems. This chapter studies the gap between the formal regulatory setting and the effective implementation of policy in terms of the tensions and difficulties they face.

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