Handbook of Organizational and Entrepreneurial Ingenuity
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Handbook of Organizational and Entrepreneurial Ingenuity

Edited by Benson Honig, Joseph Lampel and Israel Drori

The editors of this Handbook, Benson Honig, Joseph Lampel and Israel Drori, define organizational ingenuity as ‘the ability to create innovative solutions within structural constraints using limited resources and imaginative problem solving’. They and the authors examine the dichotomy between organizational freedom and necessity in order to better understand the role of ingenuity in the success of an organization.
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Chapter 6: Risk perception and ingenuity in entrepreneurship in Japan

David T. Methé


Entrepreneurs must be ingenious in coping with the difficulties inherent in starting a new business (Carland et al., 1984). This is especially so when the new business is in technology-intensive industries where previously non-existing companies must not only legitimate themselves and their products, but also the underlying technology from which they spring (Aldrich and Fiol, 1994). Although entrepreneurship is seen as a universal human activity, many scholars recognize that different environments will have differential impacts on these activities (Thomas and Mueller, 2000; Weber and Hsee, 1998). Scholars have indicated that differences in institutional environments do affect entrepreneurial activities (Clausen, 2011; De Clerq and Arenius, 2006) and some of these differences have been examined in the context of entrepreneurship in Japan (Borton, 1992; Bracker and Methé, 1994; Methé and Bracker, 1994; Methé, 2006a; Whittaker et al., 2009). Although the Japanese economy is dominated by small-to medium-sized businesses, both in numbers and employment (Ballon and Honda, 2000), the institutional environment for starting a business in Japan, especially a high technology business, has been consistently rated as one of the most difficult (Feigenbaum and Brunner, 2002; Bosma and Harding, 2007; Kelly et al., 2011). The fostering of high technology start-ups is particularly important in that these types of organizational forms tend to be more likely to generate radical innovations (Methé et al., 1996) and are also seen as a primary engine of growth and renewal in economies.

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