Handbook of Education in China
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Handbook of Education in China

Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

The Handbook of Education in China provides both a comprehensive overview and an original interpretation of key aspects of education in the People’s Republic of China. It has four parts: The Historical Background; The Contemporary Chinese System; Problems and Policies; The Special Administrative Regions: Macau and Hong Kong. The Handbook is an essential reference for those interested in Chinese education; as well as a comprehensive textbook that provides valuable supplementary material for those studying Chinese politics, economy, culture and society more generally.
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Chapter 15: Private tutoring

Peggy A. Kong, Xiaoran Yu and Xia Zhao

Abstract

The chapter considers the role of paid private tutoring or ‘shadow education’ in relation to the provision of the mainstream education system. It raises concerns about variability in the access to and the quality of private tutoring across the country, and calls for policy interventions to address ethical concerns and allegations of corruption among teachers participating in ‘shadow education’. It shows also the tension between individual aspirations in education on the one hand, and social provision on the other.

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