Edited by Bernhard Dachs, Robert Stehrer and Georg Zahradnik
Chapter 2: Internationalisation of R & D: A Brief Survey of the Literature
This chapter gives an overview on the key findings of the literature on the internationalisation of R & D. I focus on three issues: first, the drivers of the process ñ why firms go abroad with R & D activities. Second, the effects of the internationalisation of R & D on the host countries. Third, the impacts of R & D internationalisation on the home countries of multinational firms. This survey has two important limitations: first it will only include the literature on the internationalisation of R & D in firms, and leave internationalisation in higher education or public research centres aside. Second, the literature on foreign direct investment (FDI) and multinational enterprises is only covered if it relates to R & D. Internationalisation refers to the internationalisation of business R & D through the remainder of this chapter, unless otherwise stated. The oldest literature on the internationalisation of R & D dates back to the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s (e. g. Dunning 1958; Brash 1966; Safarian 1966). Only few articles and surveys emerged in the 1970s (examples are Creamer 1976; Ronstadt 1977; Lall 1979) and in the 1980s and early 1990s (Behrman and Fischer 1980, Cantwell 1989, Pearce 1992). Since the year 2000, a growing body of literature provides evidence that the internationalisation of R & D is gaining momentum (OECD 2005; UNCTAD 2005; Hatzichronoglou 2008; OECD 2008a; OECD 2008b; OECD 2008c; OECD 2010). This literature is accompanied by a number of international comparisons of policies towards R & D internationalisation (CREST Working Group 2007, OECD 2008a, TAFTIE 2009, Schwaag Serger and Wise 2010).
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