The Internationalisation of Business R & D
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The Internationalisation of Business R & D

Edited by Bernhard Dachs, Robert Stehrer and Georg Zahradnik

It has become clear that over the past few decades enterprises not only produce and sell abroad but increasingly also develop goods and services outside their home countries; a development now known as the internationalisation of business R & D. This book presents a comprehensive picture of the current state of internationalisation of R & D in the business sector.
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Chapter 2: Internationalisation of R & D: A Brief Survey of the Literature

Bernhard Dachs


This chapter gives an overview on the key findings of the literature on the internationalisation of R & D. I focus on three issues: first, the drivers of the process ñ why firms go abroad with R & D activities. Second, the effects of the internationalisation of R & D on the host countries. Third, the impacts of R & D internationalisation on the home countries of multinational firms. This survey has two important limitations: first it will only include the literature on the internationalisation of R & D in firms, and leave internationalisation in higher education or public research centres aside. Second, the literature on foreign direct investment (FDI) and multinational enterprises is only covered if it relates to R & D. Internationalisation refers to the internationalisation of business R & D through the remainder of this chapter, unless otherwise stated. The oldest literature on the internationalisation of R & D dates back to the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s (e. g. Dunning 1958; Brash 1966; Safarian 1966). Only few articles and surveys emerged in the 1970s (examples are Creamer 1976; Ronstadt 1977; Lall 1979) and in the 1980s and early 1990s (Behrman and Fischer 1980, Cantwell 1989, Pearce 1992). Since the year 2000, a growing body of literature provides evidence that the internationalisation of R & D is gaining momentum (OECD 2005; UNCTAD 2005; Hatzichronoglou 2008; OECD 2008a; OECD 2008b; OECD 2008c; OECD 2010). This literature is accompanied by a number of international comparisons of policies towards R & D internationalisation (CREST Working Group 2007, OECD 2008a, TAFTIE 2009, Schwaag Serger and Wise 2010).

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