Handbook of Welfare in China
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Handbook of Welfare in China

Edited by Beatriz Carrillo, Johanna Hood and Paul Kadetz

The Handbook is a timely compilation dedicated to exploring a rare diversity of perspectives and content on the development, successes, reforms and challenges within China’s contemporary welfare system. It showcases an extensive introduction and 20 original chapters by leading and emerging area specialists who explore a century of welfare provision from the Nationalist era, up to and concentrating on economic reform and marketisation (1978 to the present). Organised around five key concerns (social security and welfare; emerging issues and actors; gaps; future challenges) chapters draw on original case-based research from diverse disciplines and perspectives, engage existing literature and further key debates.
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Chapter 5: Health inequalities, medical insurance and medical financial assistance

Zhongwei Zhao, Hongbo Jia and Jiaying Zhao


Great disparities in health, morbidity and chances of survival exist widely across different populations. These disparities are closely related to and often caused by inequalities in levels of income, standards of living and accessibility to high-quality health services and care. Health disparities can also increase the gap in income and living conditions that already exist in a population. As important strategies, social medical insurance and financial assistance have been developed to address such health inequities and their negative externalities on vulnerable social groups. Through an analysis of health and demographic data collected and published by the Chinese government, national censuses and surveys, and a review of the existing literature and official documents, this chapter aims to provide a systematic introduction to the development of China’s health insurance and medical financial assistance programmes, and their contributions to the improvement of social welfare in its urban and rural areas.

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