Public Administration Reforms in Europe
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Public Administration Reforms in Europe

The View from the Top

Edited by Gerhard Hammerschmid, Steven Van de Walle, Rhys Andrews and Philippe Bezes

Based on a survey of more than 6700 top civil servants in 17 European countries, this book explores the impacts of New Public Management (NPM)-style reforms in Europe from a uniquely comparative perspective. It examines and analyses empirical findings regarding the dynamics, major trends and tools of administrative reforms, with special focus on the diversity of top executives’ perceptions about the effects of those reforms.
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Chapter 20: Mapping the use of public management tools in European public administration

Gilles Jeannot and Philippe Bezes


Based on the COCOPS Top Executive Survey on the contents and effects of administrative reforms, this comparative chapter offers a picture of the variations in the spread and perceived use of public management tools in 17 European countries. Focusing on management tools offers valuable insights to capture changes in management practices. The chapter first identifies the dominance of three instruments throughout European bureaucracies: management by objectives, strategic planning and performance appraisal. It offers an exploration of organisational variations in the use of management tools, showing that agencies are equipped with more management tools than central ministries, regardless of the tools considered but also that employment and welfare are the two policy sectors with the higher prevalence of management tools. At last, the chapter emphasizes evidence of the varieties of NPMisation between four clusters of countries: highly NPM-ised like the UK, the Netherlands or some Scandinavian countries; Continental; Southern Europe and post-communist countries.

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