This chapter gives a short historical review of research methods including a discussion of ontology (science of the nature of truth), epistemology (science of knowing), axiology (science of the nature of value and ethics) and methodology (science of research methods). Other definitional issues such as research approaches, paradigms, methods and techniques are clarified and defined. Rather than focusing on the artificial distinction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches, this chapter uses research paradigms as the organising principle. To that effect it gives a cursory overview of the major research paradigms, namely, positivist and post positivist, interpretivist/constructivist, post-structuralist/postmodern and critical/radical/transformative paradigms, emerging paradigms, such as Kaupapa M_ori, plus some pragmatic paradigm mixing possibilities. The applicability of each of these research paradigms for EDI research is discussed, followed by the way forward for EDI research, which sets the stage for the rest of the chapters.