Handbook on the Geographies of Innovation
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Handbook on the Geographies of Innovation

Edited by Richard Shearmu, Christophe Carrincazeaux and David Doloreux

The geography of innovation is changing. First, it is increasingly understood that innovative firms and organizations exhibit a wide variety of strategies, each being differently attuned to diverse geographic contexts. Second, and concomitantly, the idea that cities, clusters and physical proximity are essential for innovation is evolving under the weight of new theorizing and empirical evidence. In this Handbook we gather 28 chapters by scholars with widely differing views on what constitutes the geography of innovation. The aim of the Handbook is to break with the many ideas and concepts that emerged during the course of the 1980s and 1990s, and to fully take into account the new reality of the internet, mobile communication technologies, personal mobility and globalization. This does not entail the rejection of well-established and supported ideas, but instead allows for a series of new ideas and authors to enter the arena and provoke debate.
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Chapter 21: The Internet: its geography, growth and the creation of (digital) social capital

Emmanouil Tranos


This chapter proposes a new framework on how the Internet can affect economic growth. Most of current and past research explaining the above relationship from a geographical standpoint focused on the hardware of the Internet. The latter was used as a proxy of the level of digitisation which could result to productivity effects. This chapter proposes the idea that if productivity related effects was the pathway through which the Internet generated economic effects in its early stages, online social networking performs such a role nowadays. The extensive popularity of Online Social Networks has positively affected social capital and most specifically bridging ties between dislocated actors. Traditionally, the ability of bridging ties to carry diverse knowledge has been praised by the innovation literature. This chapter proposes that Online Social Networks, which represent one of the latest rounds of ICT developments, have the capacity to positively affect innovation by enhancing the digital facet of social capital.

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