Handbook of Employee Commitment
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Handbook of Employee Commitment

Edited by John P. Meyer

A high level of employee commitment holds particular value for organizations owing to its impact on organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. This Handbook provides an up-to-date review of theory and research pertaining to employee commitment in the workplace, outlining its value for both employers and employees and identifying key factors in its development, maintenance or decline. Including chapters from leading theorists and researchers from around the world, this Handbook presents cumulated and cutting-edge research exploring what commitment is, the different forms it can take, and how it is distinct from related concepts such as employee engagement, work motivation, embeddedness, the psychological contract, and organizational identification.
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Chapter 27: Commitment in Europe

Jörg Felfe and Jörg Wombacher


To face the demographic challenges of today, European businesses need to maintain and develop their employees’ commitment. This overview will address the question as to how employees are committed in Europe, and whether there are relevant differences across countries and regions, and other regions in the world. Moreover, differences with regard to antecedences and consequences of commitment in Europe are examined and specific issues that have been addressed by European researchers are mentioned. Overall, the comparison of profiles across European regions reveals that, except for Nordic Europe, there are relatively high levels of affective commitment, lower and more homogeneous levels of calculative commitment, and clearly low levels of normative commitment to the organization. Germanic and Eastern Europe show higher levels than other European and Non-European regions (Confucian Asia). Despite the methodological challenges underlying cross-country comparisons, there is converging evidence for stronger emotional attachments in countries whose populations are more collectivistic, wealthy, and satisfied in life. Moreover, many relationships between commitment and its antecedents (for example, leadership) and outcomes seem to be enhanced where an individual’s value orientation fits that of the surrounding context.

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