Research Handbook on Small Business Social Responsibility
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Research Handbook on Small Business Social Responsibility

Global Perspectives

Edited by Laura J. Spence, Jedrzej G. Frynas, Judy N. Muthuri and Jyoti Navare

The vast majority of businesses globally are small. If business is to be socially responsible, we need to go beyond the westernised concept of 'Corporate Social Responsibility', to develop 'Small Business Social Responsibility'. This agenda-setting Research Handbook on Small Business Social Responsibility includes leading research from around the world, including developed and developing country contexts. It provides a foundation for the further development of small business social responsibility as a scholarly subject and crucially important practice and policy field.
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Chapter 13: Hybrid organisations and models of social enterprise in Ghana and Bangladesh

Fergus Lyon and Abdullah Al Faruq


Social enterprises have a primary social or environmental objective and reach this through trading activity. The majority are small enterprises themselves, and hence provide insights into the nature of small business social responsibility. They balance the logic of commerce and the logic of social value and, hence, can be referred to as hybrid organisations. However, little is known about these organisations in a developing country context and this chapter explores the different models found in Bangladesh and Ghana. After discussing the historical context of social enterprise in each country, the chapter sets out the different forms of enterprise in the two countries. These include non-governmental organisations (NGOs) with trading activity, NGOs with subsidiaries, social businesses, private enterprises and cooperatives. The chapter concludes by presenting a framework for examining different forms of social enterprise according to the balance of their social and commercial aims and according to the balance of hierarchical and democratic governance.

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