Handbook on Science and Public Policy
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Handbook on Science and Public Policy

Edited by Dagmar Simon, Stefan Kuhlmann, Julia Stamm and Weert Canzler

This Handbook assembles state-of-the-art insights into the co-evolutionary and precarious relations between science and public policy. Beyond this, it also offers a fresh outlook on emerging challenges for science (including technology and innovation) in changing societies, and related policy requirements, as well as the challenges for public policy in view of science-driven economic, societal, and cultural changes. In short, this book deals with science as a policy-triggered project as well as public policy as a science-driven venture.
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Chapter 7: Bringing the rules back in. Peer review, bureaucracy and the reform of science governance in France (1960-2010)

Jérôme Aust and Clémentine Gozlan

Abstract

Since the early 1980s, New Public Management (NPM) reforms have continuously tested contemporary professions. Generalised evaluations, a push for transparency, and the introduction of market mechanisms to fund professional activity have been used by Western states to control and reduce professional power. Scholars interested in the impact of NPM reforms on professional work and power have often described the relations between professionals and managers as a battle. However, these relations have not always taken the form of a struggle. Following Freidson’s line of inquiry (1994), this chapter shows that the opposition between professions and NPM has to be revised if one wants to better understand the real transformations of scientific power and practices. Building on two historical surveys, we analyse how rules and an appeal to transparency have transformed peer review in France since the beginning of the 1960s, and we underscore the central role played by academics in these reforms.

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