Research Handbook on Law, Environment and the Global South
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Research Handbook on Law, Environment and the Global South

Edited by Philippe Cullet and Sujith Koonan

This comprehensive Research Handbook offers an innovative analysis of environmental law in the global South and contributes to an important reassessment of some of its major underlying concepts. The Research Handbook discusses areas rarely prioritized in environmental law, such as land rights, and underlines how these intersect with issues including poverty, livelihoods and the use of natural resources, challenging familiar narratives around development and sustainability in this context and providing new insights into environmental justice.
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Chapter 15: Conservation and livelihoods: conflicts or convergence?

CR Bijoy


The chapter dwells on the hegemonic conservation agenda that attempts to dominate decision-making on how natural resources, especially forests, should be managed. It looks at the conflicts this generates and its underlying nature and intent. The chapter traces the history of forest governance, from colonization of the forest to the struggle for democratization with reference to the Indian experience, and its impact, both on conservation and livelihoods. The narrative ends with the frame of governance that seeks to resolve the conservation versus livelihood construct and its replacement with the paradigm of convergence of conservation with livelihood. The obstacles and challenges in this paradigmatic shift are also part of this narrative as they emerge from the Indian experience.

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