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CROSS-BORDER COPYRIGHT LICENSING

Law and Practice

CARLO SCOLLO LAVIZZARI, RENÉ VILJOEN

Copyright Licensing can no longer be considered purely from the perspective of the licensor’s home territory. This practical and wide-ranging reference work provides comprehensive coverage of the law and practice of cross-border licensing in a number of major territories, including China, the EU, India, Mexico, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, and the USA. The book, written by expert authors with insight from practice and from their home jurisdictions, focuses on both copyright licensing and competition law and, specifically, the inter-relation between these legal fields. The book is uniquely structured to provide both thematic coverage and detailed analysis of each territory’s applicable laws and regulations, highlighting and addressing the legal issues that are most critical in and relevant to licensing practice. Cross-Border Copyright Licensing is an essential starting point for anyone considering or advising on the implementation or enforcement of a copyright licensing program, in either developed and emerging markets.
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INDEX

adaptation rights

China 1.94, 1.137

European Union 2.151

India 3.12, 3.52

Singapore 6.09, 6.37

South Africa 7.32

address or speech delivery, India 3.167

alienation of original work, Russia 5.225–8

anonymous and pseudonymous works

India 3.149

Mexico 4.69

Russia 5.102, 5.106

US 8.11

Anton Piller orders 3.152, 6.119

Apostolidis, A 7.01–118

appreciable adverse effect (AAE), India 3.77–8, 3.81, 3.85–8, 3.100–101, 3.108–9, 3.122, 3.131

arbitration clause

China 1.98

European Union 2.115

India 3.141, 3.180, 3.185

Russia 5.244–7

Singapore 6.134

South Africa 7.114

US 8.73

architectural works

India 3.154

Russia 5.231, 5.234

art works

China 1.17, 1.84

European Union 2.177

India 3.12, 3.35, 3.37, 3.40, 3.42, 3.46, 3.55

Mexico 4.17

Russia 5.229

assignment agreements

as alternative to licensing 5.131

China 1.44–5, 1.83–7

European Union 2.74–6

India 3.03–4, 3.06–7, 3.63–6

licence and assignment distinction 2.74–6, 3.63–6

Mexico 4.81

Russia 5.10–14, 5.131, 5.160, 5.241

Singapore 6.08, 6.21, 6.49–55

South Africa 7.44–9

audio-visual works

China 1.18–19, 1.27–30, 1.39, 1.58, 1.93

European Union 2.55, 2.60–61, 2.66, 2.94

Mexico 4.62

Russia 5.08, 5.12–13, 5.51–2, 5.73, 5.89

see also sound recordings

Austria 2.75

authorship determination and rights

China 1.16, 1.21–2, 1.69

European Union 2.19, 2.50, 2.51–8, 2.61

India 3.26, 3.56, 3.164–5

Mexico 4.51–2, 4.64

Russia 5.230–31

Singapore 6.17, 6.20–21, 6.26, 6.29, 6.37, 6.41

South Africa 7.16–21, 7.26, 7.31–3

US 8.03–4, 8.08–11

see also ownership determination

automated message systems, Singapore 6.16

bankruptcy considerations, US 8.59–66

Bechthold, S 2.47

Belgium 2.22, 2.48

bespoke licences see India, bespoke licences; Russia, bespoke licences

Blignaut, H 7.01–118

block exemptions

European Union 2.07, 2.120, 2.129–30

India 3.96

‘boilerplate clauses’, India 3.177

book publishing rights see under literary copyright

Bordans, J 2.99

broadcasting rights

China 1.29, 1.30

European Union 2.28

European Union, cable retransmission 2.25, 2.98–9, 2.113

India 3.13, 3.46, 3.60, 3.126

Russia 5.75

Singapore 6.23

US 8.30

see also radio broadcasts; sound recordings; television broadcasts

Bu, Y 1.79, 1.83, 1.85, 1.87, 1.141, 1.149

Buhrow, A 2.178

bundling of rights

China 1.153

European Union 2.165

India 3.24

Mexico 4.53, 4.67

South Africa 7.70–72

US 8.23–8

see also tying provisions

business customs regulation, Russia 5.111

cable retransmission, see under broadcasting rights

cease and desist orders

China 1, 41, 1.47

India 3.135

China 1.01–164

applied art 1.17

assignment agreements 1.83–7

audio-visual works 1.18–19, 1.27–30, 1.39, 1.58

authors’ rights 1.16, 1.21–2, 1.69

cease and desist orders 1, 41, 1.47

choice of law and venue of jurisdiction consideration 1.12–14

cinematographic works 1.20, 1.68, 1.102

Civil Procedure Law 1.14–15

compulsory licensing 1.120

computer software 1.18, 1.85

conflict of law principles 1.10–15, 1.65

defendant with no domicile within PRC, property rights dispute 1.15

exploitation of works of others 1.22

Foreign Invested Enterprises, actions arising from the performance of contracts for 1.15

foreigners with software first published within PRC 1.18

habitual residence laws 1.13–14

information networks, audio or video recording distribution 1.28

international conventions and conflict of law principles 1.08–15

jointly owned works 1.70–72, 1.123

judicial interpretation, important 1.07

legal entities, ownership determination 1.66

literary copyright 1.119

moral rights 1.16, 1.21, 1.48, 1.84, 1.101, 1.126

music copyright 1.117–18

neighbouring rights 1.23

as net importer of cultural goods 1.01

ownership determination 1.65–9

performer’s rights 1.26

producers of sound or video recordings and their licensees 1.27–8

publishers’ exclusive right of publication and time limits 1.25

publishers’ permission for revision or abridgement of works 1.24

radio and television stations 1.29, 1.30

transfer of ownership of an original work of fine art 1.84

works by employees 1.73–6, 1.77–8

WTO and TRIPS accession 1.02, 1.04

China, anti-monopoly law and licensing 1.140–64

agencies 1.141

and bundling 1.153

discriminative treatment 1.163

dominant position abuse 1.162–3

‘essential facilities’ doctrine 1.150, 1.151

future rights and achievements obligations 1.160

grant-back clauses 1.62, 1.154, 1.159

injunctive relief 1.162

intellectual property rights 1.55–63, 1.142–4, 1.149, 1.151, 1.153

refusal to license 1.151, 1.163

relevant market definition 1.149

resale price maintenance 1.158

restrictive clauses 1.154, 1.161

royalties for licensed IP rights, unfairly high 1.162

safe harbour rule 1.161

software and related licenses 1.146

tying prohibition 1.152–3

China, contracts 1.64–139

adaptation of existing work 1.94, 1.137

confidential information protection 1.111–12

contractual claims 1.104–12

essential clauses, application of law in absence of 1.113–16

good faith principle 1.107, 1.112

joint publishing contracts 1.135

liability exemption and liquidated damages 1.108–10

license fee, lack of clear stipulation on 1.113–14

liquidated damages, damage compensation levels 1.109–10

newspaper publication 1.58, 1.131, 1.136

non-performance, faulty performance and debtor’s delay 1.104–6

performance contracts 1.24, 1.138

publishing contracts 1.133–5

statutory grounds for termination of contract 1.115–16

translation contracts 1.94, 1.137

China, contracts, licensing 1.03–4, 1.07, 1.16–30, 1.88–103

arbitration clause, need for 1.98

breach of contract 1.96, 1.105, 1.107, 1.125

contract invalidity and harm done to social and public interests 1.99

enforcement of 1.122–30

exclusivity 1.33–4, 1.40, 1.90–91

license markings and indication of author 1.103

obligation to use licensed copyright 1.100

presumption of exclusion of exploitation 1.91

publication of foreign books and AV products related to foreign books 1.93

restrictions 1.99–103

right to sue 1.123–7

royalty and remuneration 1.95–6

third party infringement actions, prevention of 1.97

China, contracts, licensing, legal nature of 1.31–49

breach of obligation of use of licensed object and damage compensation 1.42–3

categorisation of royalty-free license contracts 1.38

change of ownership, and transfer/assignment of rights 1.46–9

IP rights, purchase of 1.49

market access restrictions 1.60–62

partial contract fulfilment 1.43

third parties, assignment of rights and/or obligations 1.44–5

unauthorised sub-licensing 1.41

use right granted to another party, legal terminology for 1.34

use of the work of someone else, contract conclusion 1.35

validity of previously granted license 1.39–40

China, market access and foreign right owners 1.50–63

cooperation projects and joint ventures 1.53, 1.54, 1.58, 1.59, 1.60

editing of content as part of cooperation agreement 1.60

impact of prohibited or restricted market access on license agreements 1.60–62

Internet Publication Service Permit 1.53, 1.56

investment barriers 1.52–7

online distribution activities 1.59

publication contracts 1.58–9

state interference effects 1.62

variable interest entities (VIE) 1.63

work-arounds and legal risks 1.63

Christou, R 6.42, 6.43

Chung Nian, L 6.01–143

cinematographic works see film and cinematographic works

civil rights protection, Russia 5.112–14

‘click wrap’ licences

India 3.20

Singapore 6.42

US 8.45

co-authorship and collective work, distinction between, Mexico 4.64

see also authorship determination

collecting agencies

European Union 2.179, 2.182

Russia 5.151–5, 5.200–214

South Africa 7.84–90, 7.106

collective licensing

European Union see European Union, collective licensing

India 3.10, 3.157–62

Russia 5.198–214

Singapore see Singapore, collective licensing

US 8.74–5

see also licensing contracts

collective management negotiations, European Union 2.14, 2.25

collective works

European Union 2.54

US 8.04

see also ownership determination

commissioning works, South Africa 7.18

competition law

European Union see European Union, competition law

India see India, competition law

Mexico 4.88–93

Russia see Russia, individual licensing, and competition law

Singapore see Singapore, competition law

South Africa see South Africa, competition law

US see US, antitrust law

competition restraints by licence agreements see European Union, individual licensing, competition restraints by licence agreements

compilation works, China 1.67

compulsory licensing

China 1.120

European Union 2.184, 2.186

India 3.14, 3.58–9

Russia 5.115

US 8.30

computer programs

China 1.18, 1.85

European Union 2.46, 2.53, 2.60, 2.64, 2.66

India 3.52

Russia 5.14

see also databases; online access; software licences

confidentiality

China 1.111–12

India 3.15–16

Russia 5.16, 5.41–50

see also trade secret protection

conflict of law principles, China 1.08–15, 1.65

consent, use of IP objects without author’s consent, Russia 5.82–9

contracts

China see China, contracts

European Union see European Union, contract

Mexico see Mexico, contracts

Russia see Russia, contracts

Singapore see Singapore, contracts

South Africa see South Africa, contracts

US see under US, licensing

contradictory behaviour prohibition, European Union 2.187

cooperation projects see joint ventures

copying of works

plagiarism, Russia 5.36, 5.194

Singapore 6.22, 6.126

see also reproductions; substitutability

counterfeit objects, Russia 5.191, 5.194

country of origin principle 2.14, 2.109

cover versions, India 3.60, 3.148

criminal offences

India 3.138, 3.155

Singapore 6.122

cultural goods, China 1.01, 1.05–6

databases 5.75

European Union 2.37–8, 2.54, 2.66, 2.87

Russia 5.14, 5.37–50

see also computer programs; online access; software licences

De Miguel Asensio, P 2.104

De Werra, J 2.43, 2.115

Derclaye, E 2.47, 2.75

derivative works, US 8.26

digital rights

European Union 2.16, 2.23, 2.30, 2.39

US 8.21, 8.35, 8.94–5

dispute resolution

European Union 2.112–15

India 3.177–86

Russia see Russia, legal choices and dispute resolution

Singapore 6.128–35

South Africa 7.110–14

US see US, licensing, termination, remedies, and dispute resolution

dominant position abuse

China 1.162–3

European Union see European Union, competition law, dominant position abuse

India see India, competition law, dominance position abuse

Russia 5.155

Singapore 6.73, 6.103–15

South Africa 7.56, 7.80–83, 7.90

US 8.101, 8.102

see also monopolies

dual systems, US 8.43, 8.82–5

duration, renewal, termination and insolvency laws

European Union 2.24, 2.32, 2.36

India 3.146–9

Russia 5.156–67

Singapore 6.116

US 8.11, 8.19

see also termination of contract

Dusollier, S. 2.43

efficiency gains

European Union 2.170

India 3.86, 3.116

electronic communications and transactions

India 3.03, 3.17–20, 3.86, 3.116

Russia 5.17, 5.19, 5.58–61

Singapore 6.12, 6.13–14, 6.44

South Africa 7.10–15, 7.112

US 8.36

employment see works by employees

essential facilities doctrine

China 1.150, 1.151

European Union 2.184–5

South Africa 7.35, 7.36, 7.82–3

ethical issues see moral rights

European Union 2.01–191

alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 2.112–15

arbitration clauses 2.115

block exemption regulations 2.07, 2.120, 2.129–30, 2.132–6, 2.141, 2.143–4, 2.149–50, 2.154–7, 2.159, 2.167

cable retransmission 2.98–9, 2.113

collective management negotiations 2.14, 2.25

‘copyright acquis’ 2.09–13

country of origin rule 2.109

cross-border satellite transmissions and country of origin principle 2.14

harmonization in copyright field 2.08–15

hire doctrine 2.110

India, competition law comparison 3.84–7, 3.91–2, 3.96, 3.103–4, 3.106, 3.111–14, 3.132

international conventions on copyright and related rights 2.12

law, choice of applicable 2.102–10

merger control 2.07, 2.122, 2.163

orphan work status 2.14

shared legislative competence and principle of subsidiarity 2.04, 2.06

voluntary licensing 2.70, 2.113

see also individual countries

European Union, collective licensing 2.96–100

extended collective licensing schemes (ECL) 2.100

individual licensing, effects on 2.99–100

multi-territorial licensing of online rights in musical works 2.97

term extension for phonograms and cable retransmission 2.98–9

European Union, competition law 2.120–91

compulsory licensing 2.184, 2.186

copyright and related rights 2.125–8, 2.149–52, 2.154–5, 2.157–61, 2.167, 2.170, 2.178

exclusive licences 2.127

fair balance between use of intellectual property rights and competition law 2.124

injunctive relief 2.173, 2.190

licensing contracts, legal evaluation 2.128–31

monopolies 2.151, 2.178–9, 2.188

moral rights and national copyright law 2.126

royalties 2.159, 2.190

European Union, competition law, dominant position abuse 2.131, 2.174–91

art works and substitutability 2.177

collecting societies 2.179, 2.182

collective dominance of a number of rightholders 2.179

contradictory behaviour prohibition 2.187

damages claims 2.191

dominance abuse prohibition, mobile phone sector patents 3.129

essential facilities doctrine 2.184–5

exclusionary abuse 2.183–8

exploitative abuse 2.181–2

intellectual property rights protection 2.84–6, 2.176–7, 2.190

market dominance 2.175–9

pharmaceutical products and brick infrastructure 2.178, 2.186

sanctions and right to a licence 2.189–91

software 2.178

standardization agreements 2.190

TV programme information 2.178, 2.185

European Union, contracts 2.16–48

author’s rights protection 2.19

cable retransmissions 2.25

collective management negotiations 2.25

computer programs and back-up copies 2.46

digital rights 2.16, 2.23, 2.30, 2.39

education, libraries and archives 2.47, 2.68, 2.70

exceptions and contract, interrelation between 2.45–8

good faith principle 2.25–6, 2.190

legal provisions in national law of member states 2.17–19

on-demand services, interactive 2.43, 2.48

online service, cross-border ‘portability’ 2.39

private copying 2.42

technology and contract interrelation 2.39–44

termination procedures, national laws 2.35–6

territorial limits 2.24

European Union, contracts, licensing contract 2.27–38

breach of a licensing agreement as infringement 2.108

broadcasting and communication to the public 2.28

collective bargaining agreement and remuneration 2.31

data protection 2.37–8

distribution, rental and lending rights 2.28, 2.30, 2.55, 2.60, 2.61, 2.71, 2.135

insolvency and termination procedures 2.36

non-deivery of work and termination procedures 2.36

performers and producers 2.28, 2.30–31, 2.34

personality-type right 2.35

remuneration 2.30–31

reproduction and communication to the public 2.28

termination procedures 2.33–6

European Union, individual licensing 2.72–95, 2.132–73

audio-visual industry 2.94

bundling theory 2.165

databases and exhaustion principle 2.87

efficiency gains 2.170

exclusive licences 2.78, 2.81

exemption of licensing agreements which restrict competition 2.167–72

exhaustion of distribution right 2.84–7

future works and national copyright law restrictions 2.88

infringements and remedies 2.81

licence and assignment distinction 2.74–6

moral rights 2.89–95

national copyright law restrictions 2.88

non-exclusive licences 2.27, 2.69, 2.79, 2.82, 2.138

personality rights 2.92

production or distribution of goods improvement 2.134, 2.169, 2.171

restrictions 2.83–8

right to use 2.74

sanctions 2.173

self-assessment principle 2.168, 3.96

software licences and exhaustion principle 2.85–6

transfer of licences 2.80

unknown forms of exploitation and national copyright law restrictions 2.88

unpublished works and posthumous publication 2.95

European Union, individual licensing, competition restraints by licence agreements 2.137–66

books and secondary rights for dramatization and film adaptation 2.151

cinema films block booking 2.151

exclusive licence agreements 2.138–54, 2.163

exclusive territorial limitations in licensing agreements 2.140–46

exhaustion principle 2.157

fiction books and obligation not to publish other novels with other publishers 2.150

film, public presentation and exclusivity of right 2.148, 2.150

foreign decoding devices, restriction on import, sale and use 2.144

information exchange in licensing agreements 2.161

internet broadcasts and downloads 2.145

joint marketing and joint purchasing (sports rights) 2.164

market monopolization 2.151

material limitations in licensing agreements 2.147–53, 2.148

national copyright laws and possibility of granting rights of exploitation 2.149

non-exclusive licences 2.27, 2.69, 2.79, 2.82, 2.138

price agreements in licensing agreements 2.158–60

proportionality of licences between two companies 2.143

quantitative restrictions in licensing agreements 2.154

reproduction and distribution rights 2.143–4

sale of undertakings and licensing 2.162–3

sub-licensing and transfer prohibitions 2.152

technical protection measures, mandatory use 2.153

territorial delineation issues 2.142, 2.145

theatrical film licensing contracts and price fixing 2.159

third party contracts in licensing agreements, binding conditions for 2.155–7

European Union, ownership determination 2.49–71

authorship determination 2.51–8, 2.61

authorship and ownership, distinction between 2.50

cinematographic and audio-visual works and co-authors 2.55, 2.60–61, 2.66

collective works 2.54

computer programs 2.53, 2.60, 2.64, 2.66

databases 2.54, 2.66

non-discrimination principle 2.67

orphan works 2.68–70

‘out-of-commerce’ works 2.70

ownership determination, and private copying 2.61–2

presumptions of transfer for the rental right 2.60, 2.61

transitional provisions on copyright and allocation of rights 2.71

works by employees 2.64–6

exclusive licence agreements

China 1.25, 1.33–4, 1.40, 1.90–91

European Union 2.78, 2.81, 2.127, 2.138–54, 2.163

India 3.11

Mexico 4.15

Russia 5.25–35, 5.69–72

Singapore 6.07–9, 6.10, 6.46, 6.48, 6.51

South Africa 7.08

US 8.52–4

exemption of licensing agreements which restrict competition, European Union 2.167–72

exhaustion principle, European Union 2.84–7, 2.157

exploitative abuse

China 1.22

European Union 2.181–2

India 3.120

fair dealing

India 3.40, 3.52

Singapore 6.25–6

US 8.50

fair use imitation as equitable doctrine, US 8.31–2

Fawcett, J 2.104, 2.107, 2.108

Ficsor, M 2.99

film and cinematographic works

China 1.20, 1.68, 1.102

European Union 2.55, 2.60–61, 2.66, 2.148, 2.150, 2.151, 2.159

India 3.12, 3.35, 3.37, 3.38, 3.55, 3.66, 3.101, 3.149

Singapore 6.19

US 8.103–6

Finland 2.26

foreign books publication, China 1.82, 1.93

foreign decoding devices, restriction on import, sale and use, European Union 2.144

foreign law choice

India 3.184

Russia 5.241

foreign right owners and market access see China, market access and foreign right owners

foreign works and ownership

India 3.170

Russia 5.72

France

alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 2.114

audio-visual industry 2.94

contract specification requirements 2.21, 2.23

country of origin rule 2.109

droit de destination 2.29

hire doctrine 2.110

licence and assignment distinction 2.74

licensing contract and remuneration 2.31

moral rights 2.93, 2.94, 4.69

unpublished works and posthumous publication 2.95

works by employees 2.65

franchising, US 8.47

free use rights, Russia 5.86–9, 5.116–23

freedom of contract, US 8.47

future works rights

European Union 2.88

India 3, 32, 3.62, 3.162

Mexico 4.14, 4.43

South Africa 7.48

Gera, M 2.100

Germany

block booking of cinema films 2.151

contract specification requirements 2.21, 2.23

dominant position abuse 2.188

hire doctrine 2.110

lex loci protectionis rule 2.109

licence and assignment distinction 2.75

licensing contract and remuneration 2.31

moral rights, audio-visual industry 2.94

product market for lending of films to non-arthouse cinemas 2.177

remuneration rights and overriding mandatory provisions 2.107

rights of exploitation and specific subject matter 2.149

works by employees 2.65

Ginsburg, J 2.91, 2.92, 2.103, 2.107, 2.109

Golish, K 8.01–114

good faith principle

China 1.107, 1.112

European Union 2.25–6, 2.190

Russia 5.15, 5.26, 5.47

US 8.50

government involvement

China 1.62

Russia 5.135–43, 5.147

South Africa 7.18

US 8.84

government works

India 3.168

Russia 5.80–81

US 8.03

Granados, P 4.01–93

grant-back clauses, China 1.62, 1.154, 1.159

Greece 2.22, 2.31

Griffiths, J 2.11

Grosheide, W 2.89

Guibault, L 2.26, 2.47

Guo, S 1.21

habitual residence laws, China 1.13–14

Hewitt, I 6.40

Hilty, R 2.178

hire doctrine

European Union 2.110

Mexico 4.57–61

US 2.110, 8.04–7, 8.10, 8.11

Hochstadt, E 8.01–114

Hugenholtz, P. 2.26

Hungary 2.35, 2.95

implied contracts

South Africa 7.03, 7.07

US 8.45

India 3.01–192

adaptation rights 3.12, 3.52

anonymous and pseudonymous works 3.149

arbitration clause 3.141, 3.180, 3.185

authorship, false attribution 3.56

authorship in underlying works in a sound recording exception 3.38

‘boilerplate clauses’ 3.177

broadcasting of literary and musical works and sound recordings 3.46

cinematograph films 3.149

collective licensing 3.157–62

computer program adaptation for fair dealing purposes 3.52

copyright societies 3.35, 3.158–62

cover versions licence 3.60, 3.148

duration, renewal, termination and insolvency laws 3.146–9

exceptions 3.30–40

fair dealing 3.40, 3.52

foreign law choice and application 3.184

future works rights 3.32, 3.62, 3.162

international conventions 3.48–9, 3.50–51

legal, jurisdiction and dispute resolution choices 3.177–86

literary works and film rights 3.55

moral rights 3.33, 3.52–6, 3.175

multiple court jurisdiction over future dispute 3.181

one-year reversion exception 3.39

paternity right and right of integrity 3.52, 3.54, 3.55

performers rights 3.53

reproductions 3.61, 3.148

royalties 3.29, 3.31

sound recordings 3.149

taxation 3.187–92

transitional (temporal) provisions 3.43–7

translation of a literary and dramatic work 3.148

works by employees 3.41–2

works created for government or public undertakings 3.149

India, bespoke licences 3.163–76

address or speech delivery 3.167

author/creator of works 3.164–5

cinematographic work 3.166

foreign works 3.170

government works 3.168

licence agreements 3.171

ownership determination 3.164–70

public undertaking, work published under 3.169

remuneration, dual 3.173

right to sue 3.176

royalties 3.172, 3.174

works made in course of author’s employment under contract of service or apprenticeship 3.166

India, competition law 3.67–145

administrative sanctions 3.134–8

appreciable adverse effect (AAE) 3.77–8, 3.81, 3.85–8, 3.100–101, 3.108–9, 3.122, 3.131

cease and desist orders 3.135

criminal sanctions 3.138

economics-based approach 3.76–80

institutional framework 3.71–5

merger control 3.94–5, 3.131–3

relevant market determination 3.78–80

sanctions 3.134–42

India, competition law, anti-competitive agreements 3.81–102

block exemptions 3.96

Competition Act and EU law comparison 3.84–7, 3.91–2, 3.96, 3.103–4, 3.106, 3.111–14, 3.132

efficiency gains 3.86

export sales 3.98

film producer associations and distribution of films 3.101

intellectual property 3.97

international dimension and comparisons 3.84–98

joint ventures 3.93–5

territorial restrictions 3.89–92

India, competition law, dominant position abuse 3.78, 3.99, 3.103–30

broadcasting of TV channels 3.126

efficiency defence 3.116

exclusive dealing, non-competes and single branding 3.121–2

intellectual property abuses 3.115

international dimension and comparisons 3.107–16

mobile phone sector patents 3.128

online search markets 3.127

price and non-price discrimination 3.118–19, 3.120

refusal to licence 3.125–6

royalties and excessive pricing 3.111–12, 3.114

structural separation order 3.137

tying provisions 3.123–4

India, contracts 3.01–21

assignment agreements 3.03–4, 3.06–7

‘click wrap’ contracts 3.20

e-contracts 3.17–20

email, contracts accepted by 3.03

oral contracts 3.02

remuneration, dual mode 3.04

royalty specification 3.04

stamp duty 3.05

technology and contract inter-relation 3.17–21

written contract 3.03

India, contracts, licensing as contract 3.08–16

broadcast reproduction rights 3.13

cinematograph films 3.12, 3.35, 3.37, 3.38, 3.55

collective licensing 3.10

compulsory licence 3.14

exclusive license 3.11

literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works 3.12, 3.35, 3.37, 3.40, 3.42, 3.46, 3.55

performers’ rights 3.13

sound recordings 3.12, 3.35, 3.37, 3.38, 3.46

trade secret protection and confidentiality 3.15–16

translation and adaptation rights 3.12

voluntary licensing 3.14, 3.157–62

India, individual licensing 3.57–66

assignment/licence distinction 3.63–6

broadcast of literary, musical works and sound recording 3.60

compulsory license application 3.58–9

entitlement, validity and legal nature of 3.57–62

film and non-film music royalties 3.66

non-exclusive licence application 3.61, 3.192

reproductions 3.61

statutory license application 3.60

transfer of future works, equitable licensing of rights 3.62

translation of literary or dramatic works 3.61

India, ownership determination 3.22–9

author resident of foreign country, bilateral agreement considerations 3.23

author/first owner distinction 3.26

bespoke licences 3.164–70

bundle of rights 3.24

creation rule 3.24, 3.26

failure to register a work and lack of legal consequences 3.23

joint authorship 3.27–8

India, remedies 3.150–56

administrative 3.156

‘Anton Piller’ orders 3.152

architectural works 3.154

civil 3.151–4

criminal 3.155

groundless threats 3.154

interim injunctions 3.152

Mareva injunctions 3.152

monetary 3.153

Norwich Pharmacal orders 3.152

protection of separate rights 3.154

Quia timet actions 3.152

remedial rights against persons possessing infringing copies 3.154

individual licensing

European Union see European Union, individual licensing

India see India, individual licensing

Russia see Russia, individual licensing

Singapore see Singapore, individual licensing

South Africa see South Africa, individual licensing

US see US, licensing, individual licences

see also licensing contracts

inherited right, Russia 5.77, 5.232

injunctive relief

China 1.162

European Union 2.173, 2.190

India 3.152

Russia 5.170

Singapore 6.119

US 8.69, 8.85

international agreements, influence of

China 1.08–15

European Union 2.12

India 3.48–9, 3.50–51, 3.107–16

Mexico 4.47

Russia 5.71–2, 5.95–100, 5.241

Singapore 6.33–6

South Africa 7.28–9

internet see online access

investment barriers, China 1.52–7

Ireland 2.55–6, 2.65, 2.66

Janssens, M-C 2.47

joint ownership

China 1.70–72, 1.123, 1.135

India 3.27–8

Mexico 4.63–4, 4.68

Russia 5.35

Singapore 6.20, 6.101–2

US 8.08–9

joint ventures

China 1.53, 1.54, 1.58, 1.59, 1.60

European Union 2.163

India 3.93–5

Kabel, J 2.90

Kalra, B 3.01–192

Katzenberger, P 2.78, 2.110

Lall, A 6.35

legal entities, ownership determination, China 1.66

Leong, S 6.07, 6.37

Li, M 1.74, 1.77

Li, T 1.141, 1.162

Li, X 1.126

liability exemption and liquidated damages, China 1.108–10

libraries and archives

European Union 2.47, 2.68, 2.70

US 8.29

licensing contracts

China see China, contracts, licensing

European Union see European Union, contracts, licensing contract

India see India, contracts, licensing as contract

licence and assignment distinction 2.74–6, 3.63–6

Mexico 4.78–80

Russia see Russia, licensing as contract

Singapore 6.07–11

South Africa 7.06–8, 7.66–72

US see US, licensing

see also collective licensing; individual licensing; non-exclusive licence, sub-licensing; voluntary licensing

Lindner, B 2.01–119

literary works

China 1.82, 1.93, 1.119

European Union 2.23, 2.150, 2.151

India 3.12, 3.35, 3.37, 3.40, 3.42, 3.46, 3.55, 3.60

Mexico 4.17, 4.53, 4.54, 4.56

South Africa 7.17, 7.18, 7.30, 7.33

see also publication rights

Lucas, A 2.29, 2.73, 2.93, 2.103, 2.109

Lukyanov, R 5.01–255

Luxembourg 2.22, 2.114

McEwin, R 6.35

Mareva’ injunctions, India 3.152

market access and foreign right owners see China, market access and foreign right owners

market dominance see dominant position abuse

merger control

European Union 2.07, 2.122, 2.163

India 3.94–5, 3.131–3

Mexico 4.01–93

anonymous works 4.69, 4.70

assignment 4.81

audio-visual works 4.62

and author’s nationality 4.51–2

bundling of rights 4.53, 4.67

co-authorship and collective work, distinction between 4.64

competition 4.88–93

international treaties 4.47

joint ownership 4.63–4, 4.68

legal choices 4.82–3

licence agreement 4.78–80

literary works 4.17, 4.53, 4.54, 4.56

monopolistic practice 4.89–91

moral rights 4.53, 4.65, 4.69–70

non-exclusive licence 4.15, 4.74, 4.76

ownership 4.56–70

royalties 4.84

taxation 4.84–7

transfer 4.71–81

work for hire rules 4.57–61

works not subject of copyright protection 4.55

Mexico, contracts 4.01–33

artistic and literary works 4.17

exclusive licenses 4.15

formation 4.03–7, 4.36–41

future works 4.14, 4.43

‘human rights amendment’ 4.22–4

and international treaties 4.20

interpretation 4.27–30

law and forum selection 4.31–3

‘no formality principle’ 4.24

patrimonial rights 4.16, 4.39, 4.53, 4.65–8, 4.71, 4.73–81

Public Registry Institution record 4.10, 4.12, 4.18, 4.42

special requirements 4.34–43

third parties, full effects against 4.18–19

transmission term 4.13

void and voidable contracts (contract nullity theory) 4.25

written 4.37

Michaux, B 2.48

Misra, T 3.01–192

mixed contracts

Russia 5.108–14

Singapore 6.38–45

South Africa 7.34–9

mobile phones

dominance abuse prohibition, European Union 3.129

sector patents, India 3.128

monopolies

China see China, anti-monopoly law and licensing

European Union 2.151, 2.178–9, 2.188

Mexico 4.89–91

Russia 5.151–5

Singapore 6.83, 6.125

US 3.112, 8.84

see also dominant position abuse

moral rights

China 1.16, 1.21, 1.48, 1.84, 1.101, 1.126

European Union 2.89–95, 2.126

India 3.33, 3.52–6, 3.175

Mexico 4.53, 4.65, 4.69–70

Russia 5.51–5, 5.101–7, 5.176–9

Singapore 6.37

South Africa 7.30–33

US 8.25, 8.33–5

music industry

China 1.117–18

European Union 2.14, 2.97

India 3.12, 3.35, 3.37, 3.40, 3.42, 3.46, 3.55, 3.60, 3.66

Russia 5.09, 5.83, 5.125–6

US 8.29, 8.74, 8.96–114, 8.99–101

see also performance rights; publication rights; sound recordings

Netherlands 2.26, 2.29, 2.31, 2.65, 2.107

newspaper publication

China 1.58, 1.131, 1.136

Singapore 6.70–71

South Africa 7.73–9

Ng, E 6.35, 6.36

non-delivery of work and termination procedures, European Union 2.36

non-exclusive licence

European Union 2.27, 2.69, 2.79, 2.82, 2.138

India 3.61, 3.192

Mexico 4.15, 4.74, 4.76

Russia 5.14, 5.25, 5.92, 5.121, 5.124, 5.210, 5.220, 5.221, 5.223

Singapore 6.08, 6.10, 6.47

South Africa 7.07

US 8.51, 8.65, 8.102

see also licensing contracts

Nordemann, J 2.120–91

Norwich Pharmacal orders, India 3.152

nullity theory, void and voidable contracts, Mexico 4.25

official documents see government works

on-demand services, European Union 2.43, 2.48

online access

China 1.53, 1.56, 1.59

European Union 2.39, 2.97, 2.145

India 3.127

Russia 5.56–7, 5.83, 5.155

Singapore 6.121

US 8.84

see also computer programs; databases; software licences; technology

open licences

Russia 5.124–30

US 8.45

oral agreements

India 3.02

US 8.41–2

see also written agreements

orphan works, European Union 2.14, 2.68–70

ownership determination

China 1.65–9

European Union see European Union, ownership determination

India see India, ownership determination

Mexico 4.56–70

Russia see Russia, ownership determination

Singapore 6.17–21

South Africa see South Africa, ownership determination

US, licensing 8.02–14

see also authorship determination and rights; collective works; paternity rights; transfer of ownership

parody and caricature, Russia 5.86

paternity rights

India 3.52, 3.54, 3.55

Mexico 4.16, 4.39, 4.53, 4.65–8, 4.71, 4.73–81

South Africa 7.31

see also ownership determination

Patry, W 8.31

Pattloch, T 1.01–164

Peeler, C 4.69

performance rights

China 1.26, 1.138

European Union 2.28, 2.30–31, 2.34, 2.35, 2.92

India 3.13, 3.53

Russia 5.73, 5.76

Singapore 6.101–2

US 8.24, 8.28, 8.29, 8.97–101

see also music industry

personality rights, European Union 2.35, 2.92

Peyton, D 4.01

pharmaceutical products, European Union 2.178, 2.186

photographs, Russia 5.09, 5.51–2

plagiarism, Russia 5.36, 5.194

see also copying

Portugal 2.48, 2.95

posthumous publication, European Union 2.95

pricing agreements

European Union 2.158–60

India 3.111–12, 3.114, 3.118–19, 3.120

Singapore 6.89

South Africa 7.117–18

see also resale of work

private life protection, Russia 5.54–5

production or distribution of goods improvement, European Union 2.169, 2.171

proportionality of licences between two companies, European Union 2.143

pseudonym works see anonymous and pseudonymous works

public domain, Russia 5.30, 5.77–8, 5.108

public undertakings, India 3.149, 3.169

publication rights

China 1.18, 1.24, 1.25, 1.58–9, 1.82, 1.93, 1.133–5

Russia 5.28, 5.224

Singapore 6.19

see also literary works; music industry

Qu, L. 1.82

Quaedvlieg, A 2.29, 2.90

quantitative restrictions in licensing agreements, European Union 2.154

Quia timet actions, India 3.152

‘quick peek’ approach, South Africa 7.58, 7.86, 7.88, 7.89

Rab, S 3.01–192

radio broadcasts

China 1.29, 1.30

South Africa 7.62–5

US 8.113

see also broadcasting rights

Rahmatian, A 2.75

refusal to license

China 1.151, 1.163

India 3.125–6

Singapore 6.114

South Africa 7.82–3

Reinbothe, J 2.43

remedies

European Union 2.81

India see India, remedies

Russia see Russia, individual licensing, remedies

Singapore see Singapore, remedies

South Africa 7.102–4

US see US, licensing, termination, remedies, and dispute resolution

rental and lending rights, European Union 2.28, 2.30, 2.55, 2.60, 2.61, 2.71, 2.135

reproductions

European Union 2.28, 2.143–4

India 3.61, 3.148

Russia 5.88

see also copying of works

reputation, business reputation, Russia 5.53

resale of work

China 1.158

India 3.174

Russia 5.232–3

see also pricing agreements

‘restored’ works, US 8.13–14

Ricketson, S 2.91, 2.92

right to sue

China 1.123–7

India 3.176

Risely, A 6.01–143

royalties

China 1.38, 1.95–6, 1.162

European Union 2.159, 2.190

India 3.04, 3.29, 3.31, 3.66, 3.111–12, 3.114, 3.172, 3.174

Mexico 4.84

Russia 5.67, 5.250

Singapore 6.117–18

South Africa 7.44, 7.69, 7.85, 7.87, 7.90, 7.101, 7.106–7

US 8.47, 8.53–4, 8.62, 8.68, 8.74, 8.76

Russia 5.01–255

anonymous works 5.102, 5.106

collecting agencies 5.151–5, 5.200–214

collective licensing 5.198–214

compensatory remunerations to foreign rightholders 5.214

good faith principle 5.15, 5.26, 5.47

moral rights 5.51–5, 5.101–7, 5.176–9

non-exclusive licence 5.14, 5.25, 5.92, 5.121, 5.124, 5.210, 5.220, 5.221, 5.223

royalties 5.67, 5.250

taxation 5.248–55

voluntary licensing 5.198–214

Russia, bespoke licences 5.215–37

alienation of original copy or original work 5.225–8

architectural works 5.231, 5.234

author’s right to access 5.230–31

person depicted in work of visual art or photograph 5.229

publisher’s licence agreement 5.224

resale of work and droit de suite 5.232–3

works by employees 5.216–23

works included in complex objects 5.235–7

Russia, contracts 5.01–22

assignment agreement requirements 5.10–14

audio-visual work 5.08, 5.12–13

computer programs or databases, non-exclusive licence agreements 5.14

confidential information received by parties during negotiations 5.16

electronic correspondence 5.17, 5.19

intellectual property contracts 5.01–5

licence agreement requirements 5.06–9

music catalogues 5.09

photographs or cartoon characters 5.09

sound recording 5.07

Russia, individual licensing 5.108–97

assignment as alternative to licensing 5.131

assignment of exclusive right to third party 5.160

business customs regulation 5.111

civil rights protection 5.112–14

compulsory licensing 5.115

duration, renewal, termination and insolvency laws 5.156–67

free use, rightholder’s statement on permission to use IP objects 5.116–23

freedom of agreement 5.108, 5.112

mixed contracts 5.108–14

open license for works of science/literature/art 5.124–30

open license for works of science/literature/art, music remixes 5.125–6

transfer of rights 5.159, 5.159–60

validity and legal nature of entitlement 5.115–30

Russia, individual licensing, and competition law 5.132–55

advertising and trademarks 5.155, 5.186–8

antimonopoly legislation 5.151–5

applicable law 5.148–50

dominant position abuse 5.155

internet browsers 5.155

legislation regulating 5.144–7

State body controlling 5.135–43, 5.147

Russia, individual licensing, remedies 5.168–97

administrative 5.192–3

civil 5.168–91

counterfeit objects 5.191, 5.194

information–telecommunication networks 5.190

injunctive measures 5.170

Intellectual Property Court 5.195–7

liability of informational intermediaries 5.174

liquidation after repeated violations 5.173

moral rights protection 5.176–9

protection of copyrights and related (master/neighbouring) rights 5.180–88

security for a claim 5.189–97

technical 5.180–84

unfair competition act 5.172

Russia, legal choices and dispute resolution 5.238–47

applicable law 5.241

arbitration clause 5.244–7

assignment (alienation) agreements 5.241

foreign country law 5.241

licence agreements 5.241

services agreements and contractor’s agreements 5.241

trade definitions/terms accepted in international transactions 5.241

Russia, licensing as contract 5.23–62

agency agreement 5.24

and business reputation 5.53

confidentiality and trade secrets 5.41–50

copyright protection cover 5.31–3

electronic signatures 5.58–61

ethical issues 5.51–5

exclusive rights 5.25–35

information and data protection 5.37–50

intellectual rights to IP objects 5.30, 5.34–5, 5.39

joint agreements 5.35

photographs and audio-visual works, ethical issues 5.51–2

plagiarism 5.36, 5.194

private life protection 5.54–5

publishing licence agreement 5.28

sub-licence agreements 5.29

technology and contract inter-relation 5.56–62

termination of the agreement and failure to pay remuneration 5.27–8

unpublished works 5.40

websites/apps and user agreements 5.56–7

Russia, ownership determination 5.63–107

age of rightholders 5.67

audio-visual works 5.73, 5.89

broadcasting and cable transmissions 5.75

citizenship of rightholders 5.68

customary practices 5.99–100

databases 5.75

distribution of a master or copies of a legally published work 5.82–5

drafts of official documents/symbols/signs, special copyright regime 5.80–81

exceptions and contract, interrelation between 5.80–89

exclusive right to works 5.69–72

foreign work 5.72

free use of a work for informational, scientific, educational or cultural purposes without payment of remuneration 5.86–9

inherited right 5.77, 5.232

international agreements 5.71–2, 5.95–7

international customs and ‘narrative soft laws’ applicable to licensing contracts 5.98–100

moral rights 5.101–7

online music sales and digital copies 5.83

parody and caricature based on original work 5.86

performers 5.73, 5.76

phonograms 5.74, 5.76

public domain 5.30, 5.77–8, 5.108

reproductions 5.88

transfers 5.79

unpublished works 5.75

use of IP objects without author’s consent and/or payment of remuneration 5.82–9

works by employees 5.90–94

safe harbour rule

China 1.161

Singapore 6.27

sanctions

European Union 2.189–91

India 3.134–42

Scandinavia 2.93

security interests, US 8.49, 8.56–8

Seignette, J 2.66

self-assessment principle, European Union 2.168, 3.96

Shapiro, T 2.44, 2.99

Singapore 6.01–143

adaptation rights 6.09, 6.37

arbitration 6.134

assignment of future copyright 6.21

authorship determination and rights 6.17, 6.20–21, 6.26, 6.29, 6.37, 6.41

cinematograph film and sound recording publication 6.19

copying of published or unpublished works for archival purposes 6.22

duration, renewal, termination and insolvency laws 6.116

exceptions and contract inter-relation 6.22–7

fair dealing defence 6.25–6

harmonization of IP laws 6.35–6

international conventions/economic blocks/free trade agreements 6.33–6

joint authorship 6.20

legal and dispute resolution choices 6.128–35

monopolies 6.83, 6.125

moral rights 6.37

ownership requirements 6.17–21

publication of works and editions of a work 6.19

reproduction of artistic works for television and audio broadcast 6.23

‘safe harbour’ provisions and network service providers 6.27

taxation 6.136–41

temporary copies of work 6.22

transitional (temporal) provisions 6.30–32

works by employees 6.20, 6.28–9

Singapore, collective licensing 6.123–7

collective management organisations (CMOs) 6.124

copying and communicating of works 6.126

‘licence scheme’ 6.123

mandatory licences 6.125

statutory licences 6.126–7

Singapore, competition law 6.56–115

dominant position abuse 6.73, 6.103–15

infringement of prohibitions 6.61–5

IPR Guidelines 6.81–5, 6.104, 6.111–12, 6.114

legislative and administrative framework 6.56–65

market power determination 6.83

media exclusions 6.69–71, 6.74–6, 6.79–80, 6.89, 6.94, 6.97, 6.99, 6.106–8, 6.110, 6.115

newspaper publication 6.70–71

sectoral exclusions 6.69–80

technology transfer and innovation 6.81

telecoms regulation and non-competitive exclusivity clause 6.77

vertical agreements exclusion 6.66–8

Singapore, competition law, restrictive agreements 6.86–102

economic benefit assessment 6.96

IPR Guidelines 6.90–97, 6.99

performance rights under joint licences, pro-competitive effects 6.101–2

‘pooling’ of complementary IPRs, possible pro-competitive effects 6.100–102

price fixing and bid rigging 6.89

UK and EU comparison 6.88, 6.112

Singapore, contracts 6.01–16

assignment 6.08

automated message systems 6.16

e-commerce 6.12

electronic records and communication 6.13–14

electronic signatures 6.15

exclusive licence 6.07–9, 6.10, 6.46, 6.48, 6.51

licensing as contract 6.07–11

non-exclusive licence 6.08, 6.10, 6.47

original works 6.09

rights protected in works under Copyright Act 6.10

‘subject-matter other than works’ 6.09, 6.10

technology and contract inter-relation 6.12–16

writing and signature requirements 6.05–6, 6.46

Singapore, individual licensing 6.38–55

assignment as alternative to licensing 6.49–55

‘click wrap’ sub-licence 6.42

collaboration agreements 6.40–41

electronic access agreements 6.44

and mixed contract 6.38–45

software distribution contracts and source codes 6.42–3

technology changes, dealing with 6.45

transfer of ownership 6.50

validity and legal nature of entitlement 6.46–8

Singapore, remedies 6.27, 6.48, 6.51, 6.117–22

administrative actions 6.120

Anton Piller Orders 6.119

breach of copyright licence 6.119

civil action of copyright infringement 6.119

criminal offences 6.122

interlocutory injunctions 6.119

non-payment of royalties 6.117–18

online infringements 6.121

Sirinelli, P 2.103, 2.107

software licences

China 1.146

European Union 2.85–6, 2.178

India 3.190

Singapore 6.42–3

US 8.62

see also computer programs; databases; online access

Solorio Nocetti, D 4.01–93

Song, H 1.12, 1.16, 1.19, 1.69

sound recordings

India 3.12, 3.35, 3.37, 3.38, 3.46, 3.60, 3.149

Russia 5.07

US 8.02, 8.29, 8.30, 8.94–5

see also audio-visual works; broadcasting rights; music industry

South Africa 7.01–118

arbitration 7.114

authorship determination and rights 7.16–21, 7.26, 7.31–3

bespoke licences 7.109

blanket license 7.107

breach of contract 7.104

duration, renewal, termination and insolvency laws 7.93–101

electronic transactions 7.112

freedom to contract 7.108

implied contracts 7.03, 7.07

legal and dispute resolution choices 7.110–14

remedies 7.102–4

royalties 7.44, 7.69, 7.85, 7.87, 7.90, 7.101, 7.106–7

taxation 7.115–18

voluntary licensing 7.105–6

South Africa, competition law 7.50–92

appeal courts 7.55

collecting societies 7.84–90, 7.106

complaint submissions 7.53

contraventions of Competition Act 7.91–2

distribution 7.73–9

dominance abuse 7.56, 7.80–83, 7.90

intellectual property rights 7.52, 7.59

licensing 7.66–72

market definition 7.61–5

market power 7.81

newspaper printing and distribution 7.73–9

‘quick peek’ approach 7.58, 7.86, 7.88, 7.89

radio stations and market definition 7.62–5

refusal to licence and essential facilities doctrine 7.82–3

tariff setting 7.29, 7.89, 7.106

tying and bundling 7.70–72

South Africa, contracts 7.01–15

electronic communications and transactions 7.10–13

electronic signatures 7.14–15

exclusive licence 7.08

implied contract 7.03

licensing as contract 7.06–8

non-exclusive licence 7.07

technology and contract inter-relation 7.09–15

written agreements 7.03–4

South Africa, individual licensing 7.34–49

assignment as alternative to licensing 7.44–9

essentials 7.35, 7.36

future works rights 7.48

implied terms 7.38

and mixed contracts 7.34–9

sub-licensing arrangement 7.44

transfer of ownership 7.45–7

validity and legal nature of entitlement 7.40–43, 7.49

‘whole agreement’ clause 7.42

written validation 7.49

South Africa, ownership determination 7.16–33

commissioning works 7.18

exceptions and contract inter-relations 7.18–20

international conventions/economic blocks/free trade agreements 7.28–9

literary works 7.17, 7.18, 7.30, 7.33

modification of work 7.32

moral rights 7.30–33

paternity right 7.31

State directed work 7.18

subsistence of copyright 7.20

transfer of copyright 7.33

transitional (temporal) provisions 7.25–7

works by employees 7.18, 7.21–4

Spain 2.31

‘spark of creativity’ threshold, US 8.02

Spindler, G 2.42

sports rights, European Union 2.164

stamp duty, India 3.05

standardization agreements, European Union 2.190

state involvement see government involvement

Strong, W 8.01–114

sub-licensing

China 1.41

European Union 2.152

Russia 5.29

Singapore 6.42

South Africa 7.44

US 8.55

see also licensing contracts

subsidiarity principle, European Union 2.04, 2.06

substitutability, art works, European Union 2.177

see also copying of works

Suchy, D 1.80, 1.82, 1.83, 1.119, 1.126, 1.129

Sysoeva, K 5.01–255

tariffs

China 1.120

South Africa 7.29, 7.89, 7.106

taxation

India 3.187–92

Mexico 4.84–7

Russia 5.248–55

Singapore 6.136–41

South Africa 7.115–18

US 8.76

technology

European Union 2.153

Singapore 6.45

US 8.35

see also online access

technology and contract inter-relation

European Union 2.39–44

India 3.17–21

Russia 5.56–62

Singapore 6.12–16

South Africa 7.09–15

technology transfer

European Union 2.133–5, 2.141, 2.143, 2.150, 2.154–6, 2.159, 2.167

Mexico 4.84

Singapore 6.81

telecoms regulation, Singapore 6.77

television broadcasts

China 1.29, 1.30

European Union 2.178, 2.185

US 8.107–12

see also broadcasting rights

temporary copies of work, Singapore 6.22

termination of contract

China 1.115–16

European Union 2.33–6

Russia 5.27–8

US see US, licensing, termination, remedies, and dispute resolution

see also duration, renewal, termination and insolvency laws

territorial restrictions

European Union 2.24, 2.142, 2.145

India 3.89–92

US 8.20–22

third party involvement

China 1.44–5, 1.82, 1.97

European Union 2.155–7

Mexico 4.18–19

Russia 5.11, 5.160

Tian, X 1.80, 1.83

Torremans, P 2.104, 2.107, 2.108, 6.39

trade secret protection

India 3.15–16

US 8.37–40

see also confidentiality

trademarks

Russia 5.155, 5.186–8

US 8.63

Trampuž, M 2.85, 2.99

transfer of future works see future works rights

transfer of ownership

China 1.46–9, 1.84

European Union 2.60, 2.61, 2.80

India 3.162

Mexico 4.71–81

Russia 5.79, 5.159, 5.159–60

Singapore 6.50

South Africa 7.33, 7.45–7

US 8.04

see also ownership determination

transitional provisions

India 3.43–7

Singapore 6.30–32

South Africa 7.25–7

translation rights

China 1.94, 1.137

India 3.12, 3.61, 3.148

Tsuru, K 4.01–93

tying provisions

China 1.152–3

India 3.123–4

Singapore 6.114

South Africa 7.70–72

see also bundling of rights

UK 2.01, 2.48, 2.55, 2.65, 2.66, 2.69, 2.81, 8.31

unpublished works

European Union 2.95

Russia 5.40, 5.75

US 8.01–114

US, antitrust law 8.77–114

copyright law and antitrust law intersection 8.86–95

digital sound recording immunity 8.94–5

dual system of public and private enforcement 8.82–5

government guidance to courts in copyright cases 8.84

injunctive relief claim 8.85

limited shields from potential antitrust liability 8.88–95

market power abuse 8.101, 8.102

movie-theaters 8.103–6

music industry 8.96–114

music industry, performing rights organizations (PRO)-based licensing scheme 8.99–101

Noerr-Pennington immunity 8.89–93

non-exclusive licence grants 8.102

online monopolies 8.84

public performance rights 8.97–8, 8.100

radio 8.113

regulatory enforcement and judicial treatment of select licensing practices 8.102–13

rights holders and rights users 8.97–8

television 8.107–12

US, licensing 8.01–76

anonymous and pseudonymous works 8.11

authorship determination and rights 8.03–4, 8.08–11

bankruptcy considerations 8.59–66

breach of contract 8.64

bundle of rights and medium of exploitation 8.23–8

cable and satellite broadcasting 8.30

‘click on’ licences 8.45

collective licensing 8.74–5

collective works 8.04

compulsory licensing 8.30

contract as a surrogate for copyright 8.36–40

creative individual acting on behalf of hiring party 8.04–7, 8.10, 8.11

derivative works 8.26

digital licence and territorial scope 8.21

distribution right 8.27–8

dual system of federal and state law 8.43

duration 8.11, 8.19

e-commerce 8.36

exclusions 8.03

fair use imitation as equitable doctrine 8.31–2

federal copyright protection pre-19788.12–13

franchising 8.47

freedom of contract 8.47

good faith and fair dealing expectation 8.50

government works 8.03

implied contracts binding on licensees 8.45

international transactions 8.10

joint authorship 8.08–9

libraries and archives 8.29

licence creation 8.41–50

moral rights 8.25, 8.33–5

music, non-dramatic musical works 8.29

national security and technology export prohibition 8.49

non-disclosure agreement (NDA) and trade secrets 8.40

non-exclusive licence 8.65

non-US work published abroad pre-19788.13

open access licences 8.45

oral agreements 8.41–2

ownership determination 8.02–14

performance or display 8.24, 8.28, 8.29

recordation and security interests 8.56–8

registration and notice 8.15–18, 8.38

remedies 8.38

‘restored’ works 8.13–14

royalties 8.47, 8.53–4, 8.62, 8.68, 8.74, 8.76

software and source code escrow agreement 8.62

sound recordings 8.02, 8.29, 8.30

‘spark of creativity’ threshold 8.02

‘statutory damages’, discretionary nature of 8.15

taxation 8.76

technology trafficking prohibition and digital rights management (DRM) 8.35

territorial scope 8.20–22

trade secret rights 8.37–40

and trademarks 8.63

transfers 8.04

written agreements 8.05

US, licensing, individual licensing 8.51–5

exclusive licence 8.52–4

non-exclusive licence 8.51

sub-licensing 8.55

validity duration 8.54

US, licensing, termination, remedies, and dispute resolution 8.66–73

arbitration 8.73

breach of contract 8.67–9

federal and state statutes and legal choices 8.70–73

forum choice 8.71–2

injunctive relief 8.69

payment of attorneys’ fees 8.69

special or consequential damages 8.68

‘specific performance’ requirement 8.69

validity of licence

China 1.39–40

Russia 5.115–30

Singapore 6.46–8

South Africa 7.40–43, 7.49

US 8.54

variable interest entities (VIE), China 1.63

Veiksa, I 2.99

Visser, D 2.29

voluntary licensing

European Union 2.70, 2.113

India 3.14, 3.157–62

Russia 5.198–214

South Africa 7.105–6

see also licensing contracts

Von Lewinski, S 2.04, 2.13, 2.47

Walter, M 2.47

Wei, G 6.08, 6.41, 6.43

works by employees

China 1.73–6, 1.77–8

European Union 2.64–6

India 3.41–2, 3.166

Russia 5.90–94, 5.216–23

Singapore 6.20, 6.28–9

South Africa 7.18, 7.21–4

works included in complex objects, Russia 5.235–7

written agreements

India 3.03

Mexico 4.37

Singapore 6.05–6, 6.46

South Africa 7.49

US, licensing 8.05

see also oral agreements

Wu, H 1.37, 1.83, 1.84, 1.88, 1.89, 1.90, 1.95, 1.96, 1.101, 1.135, 1.137, 1.138

Xu, C 1.117, 1.119

Zhang, C 1.18, 1.19, 1.20

Zhang, X 1.100

Zhang, Y 1.33, 1.37, 1.43, 1.49, 1.95, 1.97, 1.106, 1.116

Zhao, Q 1.82

Zhou, C 1.14

Zhou, P 1.16, 1.36, 1.46, 1.49, 1.55