Research Handbook on EU Sports Law and Policy
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Research Handbook on EU Sports Law and Policy

Edited by Jack Anderson, Richard Parrish and Borja García

The EU’s influence on sport has traditionally focused on the socio-economic and cultural impact. This Research Handbook on EU Sports Law explores the development of the 'European dimension' in sport, and the concomitant legal issues including, competition law, state aid and free movement of persons. The application of such areas of EU law to sport and the influence of EU law on key policy issues such as, doping, match-fixing and governance, are detailed in this comprehensive collection. The topical chapters by experts in their field, also touch upon the future evolution of EU sports law.
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Chapter 7: Violence at sporting events

Anastassia Tsoukala


This chapter presents a critical overview of the main aspects of EU counter-hooliganism policies. The chapter argues that from the mid-1990s up to 2006, the main approach was elaborated under the sole influence of law enforcers who, in the absence of any definition of football crowd violence, turned into key definers and managers of this form of violence. Quite unsurprisingly, these police-led policies have been of limited efficiency because, by definition, they could not go beyond the stage of engaging in an endless struggle against the ever-changing manifestation of the phenomenon. The re-founding of EU policies, from 2007 on, marks a turning point in countering football crowd violence due to the introduction of long-term preventive policies and the inclusion of supporters in stakeholder groups.

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