The Challenges of Collaboration in Environmental Governance
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The Challenges of Collaboration in Environmental Governance

Barriers and Responses

Edited by Richard D. Margerum and Cathy J. Robinson

Collaborative approaches to governance are being used to address some of the most difficult environmental issues across the world, but there is limited focus on the challenges of practice. Leading scholars from the United States, Europe and Australia explore the theory and practice in a range of contexts, highlighting the lessons from practice, the potential limitations of collaboration and the potential strategies for addressing these challenges.
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Chapter 9: When voluntary is prescribed but mandated is necessary: the challenges of compulsory collaboration on complex public issues

Julia M. Wondolleck and Susan D. Lurie


Voluntary participation is a well-established tenet of collaborative public management. Engagement by choice ensures commitment and good faith participation. However, mandating participation in a collaborative process has become necessary in situations involving wicked problems where there is an imperative for cross-jurisdictional and organizational interaction yet no incentive or opportunity for collaboration exists. The CALFED collaborative illustrates multiple ways in which qualities associated with voluntary engagement were instilled in a process in which participation was mandated. A sense of issue urgency, acknowledgement of interdependence between parties, recognition of collaboration as the preferred approach to decision-making, and procedural fairness were fostered through both enabling and constraining strategies exercised by the process conveners. Defection from the process was strategically precluded. Significant process challenges that appear unique to situations in which participation is mandated include sustaining the mandate and managing enduring home agency resistance.

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