Edited by Aynsley Kellow and Hannah Murphy-Gregory
Chapter 9: NGOs and global economic policy institutions
The chapter examines the evolution of arrangements for consulting with NGOs at four international economic policy institutions – the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). It reveals that despite the formal constraints, a diverse set of NGOs active on a range of issues contribute to global economic policy issues in alternative ways, and that the key institutional characteristics of the arenas themselves help structure the ensuing relationships between NGOs and member states. NGOs exert most influence behind the scenes rather than at the negotiating table, are adept at forming tacit alliances with member governments, and even secure access to decision-making via delegations of member governments. Organizational characteristics, particularly the decision-making rules of the institutions, often determine and reinforce power relations among member states, which may create important sources of leverage for NGOs to impact agendas and, on occasion, policy outcomes.
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