Handbook of Research on NGOs
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Handbook of Research on NGOs

Edited by Aynsley Kellow and Hannah Murphy-Gregory

This volume provides a critical overview of research on Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs). While it notes that the definition of NGOs is contested, and can include both business and national groups, it focuses primarily on international NGOs engaged with human rights, social and environmental concerns, and aid and development issues. With contributions by Peter Willetts, Tom Davies, Bob Reinalda and other leading scholars, it provides a series of critical essays on both general aspects of NGOs and significant issues of particular concern.
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Chapter 13: Environmental non-governmental organizations

Timothy Doyle


What is the effectiveness of environmental NGOs in the neoliberal world order? One critique is that international environmental (IENGOs) often become co-opted actors serving a neoliberal capitalist agenda. The internationalization of local environmental issues has produced important outcomes, even within authoritarian, quasi-authoritarian and post-authoritarian states. Some cases demonstrate the effectiveness of international mobilization and pluralist political pressure-group politics; in others, IENGOs working inside the neoliberal frame, sidestepping the state altogether. International “name and shame” campaigns targeting consumption practices and international corporations are cases in point. IENGOs have not been immune to the chill winds of neoliberal governance. Some have operated within its limits and achieved significant outcomes; others have resisted and rejected neoliberalism. All have faced challenges, and responded in different ways with different results. Many have the potential to break from traditional politics, operating more creatively and genuinely transformative political projects, and all have an important role as agents of social learning.

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