Edited by Aynsley Kellow and Hannah Murphy-Gregory
Global governance is conducted in multiple arenas, giving rise to opportunities for ‘forum shopping’ by a range of actors, including NGOs. This chapter examines such strategies of NGOs in relation to the enforcement of labour standards, intellectual property rights, investment rules and marine governance. Because of institutional characteristics (membership, decision-making procedures and enforcement capacity), multiple arenas and their use as alternative arenas prove beneficial for NGOs on a short-term basis. Forum-shopping strategies allow NGOs (and nation-states) to bypass institutional constraints at one forum and progress their policy goals elsewhere; and assist both developing and developed nations, providing normative justifications for policy changes and publicising key issues to exert pressure agree to policy change. While some lament forum shopping as simply instrumental, these cases show it can overcome the limitations of individual policy areas at the international level by providing forums for states and NGOs to improve or advance international agreements.
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.