Handbook of Research on Nonprofit Economics and Management
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Handbook of Research on Nonprofit Economics and Management

Second Edition

Edited by Bruce A. Seaman and Dennis R. Young

Building on the success of the first edition, this thoroughly revised and expanded edition explores (1) areas of general agreement from previous research; (2) areas of conflicting results and unexplored questions; (3) the relative roles of theory, data availability and empirical analysis in explaining gaps in our knowledge; and (4) what must be done to improve our knowledge and extend the literature. Selected original chapters addressing especially challenging topics include the value of risk management to nonprofit decision-making; nonprofit wages theory and evidence; the valuation of volunteer labor; property tax exemption for nonprofits; when is competition good for the third sector; and product diversification and social enterprise; international perspectives; the application of experimental research and the macroeconomic effects of the nonprofit sector.
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Chapter 22: The social economy: an international comparison

Jack Quarter and Laurie Mook


In this chapter, Jack Quarter and Laurie Mook present a social economy framework for understanding the extraordinary variety of organizations that are guided by social objectives – non-profits, co-operatives, and social enterprises. The framework highlights the similarities and differences of social economy organizations, and how they interact with the other sectors of society. Prioritizing social objectives affects how these organizations function; it places constraints on the disposition of surplus earnings and who can benefit from the assets, which are used to create social wealth, not individual wealth. Social economy organizations also face common issues, including the need to build awareness of their role and impact, and to prepare a workforce to manage multiple bottom lines. In brief, the social economy – social economy businesses, community economic development organizations, public sector non-profits, and civil society organizations –is an integral part of a mixed economy and serves in many ways as its social infrastructure.

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