Handbook on Hybrid Organisations
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Handbook on Hybrid Organisations

Edited by David Billis and Colin Rochester

Hybrid Organisations – that integrate competing organisational principles – have become a preferred means of tackling the complexity of today's societal problems. One familiar set of examples are organisations that combine significant features from market, public and third sector organisations. Many different groundbreaking approaches to hybridity are contained in this Handbook, which brings together a collection of empirical studies from an international body of scholars. The chapters analyse and theorise the position of hybrid organisations and have important implications for theory, practice and policy in a context of proliferating hybrid forms of organisation.
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Chapter 4: Local government mixed enterprises

Anthony E. Boardman and Mark A. Moore


Local governments typically provide a variety of services including roads, primary and secondary education, bus and other public transportation services, fire prevention, garbage collection, parks, policing, social assistance, and water and wastewater treatment. Many of these services require physical facilities in order to operate. Much public infrastructure is old and needs to be replaced. In many regions, the capacity of the infrastructure needs to be expanded. The cost of providing new or refurbished infrastructure continues to increase and, at the same time, many voters oppose tax increases. In attempts to do more for less, local governments have explored alternative forms of service delivery. Many services have been contracted out to the private sector, most notably for garbage collection but also in other areas. More recently, local governments have formed hybrid organisations to provide local services. This chapter focuses on hybrid organisations in which a local government and the private sector are partners in the sense that each sector has property rights pertaining to the organisation. We refer to these organisations as local government mixed enterprises (local MEs).

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