Handbook of Research on Counterfeiting and Illicit Trade
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Handbook of Research on Counterfeiting and Illicit Trade

Edited by Peggy E. Chaudhry

This unique Handbook provides multiple perspectives on the growth of illicit trade, primarily exploring counterfeits and internet piracy. It includes expert opinion on a wide range of topics including the evaluation of key global enforcement issues, government and private-sector agency initiatives to stifle illicit trade, and the evolution of piracy on the internet. The authors also assess the efficacy of anti-counterfeiting strategies such as targeted consumer campaigns, working with intermediaries in the supply chain, authentication technology, and online brand protection.
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Chapter 10: Illicit trade in the tobacco sector

Peggy E. Chaudhry and Alan S. Zimmerman


This chapter focuses on the illicit trade in tobacco products and particularly key elements of this illicit trade that include 1) the scale of the global illicit tobacco trade and its nature (notably, the distinction that can be drawn between source and destination markets); 2) the various types of illicit tobacco products; and 3) the nature and characteristics of the illicit tobacco trade. A discussion of the recognized sources and destinations of illicit tobacco trade; the criminal gangs behind illicit tobacco trade; the use of packaging as a deterrent to counterfeiters; the role of tax stamps; and the use of Internet sites for distribution is provided. We also present the principal factors contributing to illicit trade in tobacco; specifically: 1) consumer affordability of tobacco products; 2) the profit incentives available to illicit traders; 3) the fact that criminal penalties are low and disproportionate to profit incentives; 4) consumer complicity; 5) the significance of the location of certain countries; and 6) tobacco as the “ideal smuggled product”. Although many of these issues are worthy of individual reports in their own right, analysis at that level of detail is beyond the scope of this chapter.

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