Handbook of Methods in Leadership Research
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Handbook of Methods in Leadership Research

Edited by Birgit Schyns, Rosalie J. Hall and Pedro Neves

This volume provides an overview of a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods for leadership research, authored by scholars in the areas of leadership and research methodology. Integrating insights from other research areas, it provides novel approaches and multiple techniques for leadership research in a straightforward fashion. Because the volume is designed to help leadership researchers get their first insights into specific methods and their potential application to leadership research, it is appropriate for multiple audiences. These include academics and practitioners wanting to try a new method, as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate students wanting an overview of a variety of techniques. It will also be helpful to readers and reviewers as they endeavour to better understand and assess the quality of existing leadership research.
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Chapter 10: Multi-level issues and dyads in leadership research

Francis J. Yammarino and Janaki Gooty


Multi-level issues and multiple levels of analysis are important in leadership research. In this chapter, the authors identify and explain multi-level issues particularly relevant for leadership theory and methods, including the primary levels in organizations; alternative views of each level; level-specific, emergent, and cross-level relationships; and time, fallacies, and analytics for multiple levels of analysis. They then explore in greater depth the level of analysis that to date has been the most neglected and misunderstood in leadership research – dyads. In doing so, they highlight different dyadic conceptualizations, including dependencies within and between dyads, independent and dependent dyads, and nested and cross-classified dyads; and highlight three methodological approaches for dyadic leadership research – actor–partner interdependence model, random coefficient modeling, and within and between analysis – with discussion of their similarities and differences. Finally, some recommendations for multi-level theory and methods in general, and dyadic research specifically, in the leadership realm are offered.

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