Handbook on the EU and International Trade
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Handbook on the EU and International Trade

Edited by Sangeeta Khorana and María García

The Handbook on the EU and International Trade presents a multidisciplinary overview of the major perspectives, actors and issues in contemporary EU trade relations. Changes in institutional dynamics, Brexit, the politicisation of trade, competing foreign policy agendas, and adaptation to trade patterns of value chains and the digital and knowledge economy are reshaping the European Union's trade policy. The authors tackle how these challenges frame the aims, processes and effectiveness of trade policy making in the context of the EU's trade relations with developed, developing and emerging states in the global economy.
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Chapter 20: Singapore Issues

William A. Kerr


The institutional architecture governing international commercial relations is incomplete. The World Trade Organization’s (WTO) reach is limited relative to, for example, preferential trade agreements such as the European Union. The European Union, among others, has had an interest in filling in a number of perceived gaps in the institutional architecture. Four of these issues have commonly become known as the Singapore Issues since they were specifically included in the WTO agenda for future work in the Ministerial Declaration from the Ministerial meeting held in Singapore in 1996. The Singapore Issues are: (1) investment; (2) competition; (3) government procurement; and (4) trade facilitation. This chapter reviews why these issues are important in international commerce and the progress that has been made for each of them.

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