Handbook of Contemporary Education Economics
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Handbook of Contemporary Education Economics

Edited by Geraint Johnes, Jill Johnes, Tommaso Agasisti and Laura López-Torres

This Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of the modern economics of education literature, bringing together a series of original contributions by globally renowned experts in their fields. Covering a wide variety of topics, each chapter assesses the most recent research with an emphasis on skills, evaluation and data analytics.
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Chapter 18: Understanding shadow education from the perspective of economics of education

Junyan Liu and Mark Bray

Abstract

The so-called shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring has become a major phenomenon in all world regions. The metaphor of the shadow is used because much of the tutoring curriculum mimics that in regular schooling: as the curriculum changes in the schools, so it changes in the shadow. This chapter outlines the scale of shadow education in a range of countries, and considers the core factors shaping demand and supply. Subsequent sections focus on costs and effectiveness. Although shadow education consumes large portions of household budgets as well as much time from tutors, students and parents, research from an economic perspective is underdeveloped.

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