Edited by Alexandra Tsvetkova, Jana Schmutzler, Marcela Suarez and Alessandra Faggian
Chapter 2: From industrialization to innovation: building the Peruvian National System of Science, Technology and Innovation, 1968–2015
Since the Industrial Revolution, developing countries have tried to catch up with those successful in making the transition from decreasing to increasing return economies. However, at the turn of the new millennium, industrialization has been replaced by the rationale of innovation. This paradigm shift is not alien to the Latin American governments that, during the past 15 years, have actively supported the creation of National Innovation Systems (NISs) to upgrade their technological and research and development capabilities. This chapter reviews the efforts undertaken by the Peruvian government. A historic-analytical assessment is provided for the 1968–2015 period to describe and explain the main institutional and organizational trajectories shaping Peru’s NIS construction. Special attention is paid to the political and economic contexts and transitions, which have limited NIS construction and governance. Conclusions show that although significant macroeconomic progress has been achieved since implementation of free market reforms in the 1990s, a healthy macroeconomic environment alone is an insufficient condition for setting up an integrated, coordinated and well-performing innovation system.
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