Research Handbook on Quality, Performance and Accountability in Higher Education
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Research Handbook on Quality, Performance and Accountability in Higher Education

Edited by Ellen Hazelkorn, Hamish Coates and Alexander C. McCormick

As higher education becomes a key determinant for economic competitiveness, institutions face increasing pressure to demonstrate their fitness to meet the needs of society and individuals. Blending innovative research with richly contextualised examples this unique Research Handbook provides authoritative insights from around the globe on how best to understand, assess and improve quality, performance and accountability in higher education.
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Chapter 12: Indicators and global trends in higher education development

N.V. Varghese


Higher education has been expanding globally at an accelerated pace in this century. While all regions have experienced positive growth in higher education enrolment, the rates of growth have been higher in the developing countries than in the developed world. More often than not, the higher growth rates in enrolment were also due to the contribution of private higher education institutions. The higher rates of growth helped developing countries improve their numerical strength and share in the global enrolment in higher education. The share of women in enrolment increased faster than that of men and in most regions women outnumber men in the institutions of higher education. This century has also witnessed a substantial increase in the cross-border flow of students. Based on some of the indicators, this chapter attempts to analyse higher education development globally and in different regions. The indicators relied on to analyse trends and assess progress of higher education across countries are growth rates, the gross enrolment ratios, gender parity index, cross-border student mobility and in-bound ratios and share of private institutions. These indicators not only help in measuring progress but also assess performance of the system.

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