Harmonizing economic development and the creation of a rich culture, many measures, such as the Cool Japan Strategy, have been taken in Japan to promote creative industries. However, despite these efforts, creative industries, except software and computer services, are not growing as expected in terms of sales, value added, and the number of employees, even though the total for all industries is increasing. Notably it has become increasingly difficult to draw a line between creative and non-creative industries with highly advanced technology fully protected by intellectual property rights, which makes the definition of creative industries obscure.
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