Edited by Marc Hertogh and Richard Kirkham
Chapter 2: The history and evolution of the ombudsman model
This chapter commences with an up-to-date overview of ombudsman history and its evolution. Current models and taxonomies are referenced. The rigour of this introductory description originates from uniting the fragmented information provided by preceding sources while removing their self-imposed limitations inherent to their diverse disciplines, backgrounds and choice of examined time periods. This historical overview is enriched with an analysis of the various debates prompted by the on-going evolution of the Ombudsman model. The latter’s proliferation is examined for its quality as a product of cross-fertilization before some of the criticisms that have been raised against the ombudsman throughout the ages are examined. Drawing on the concept of independence, the chapter is rounded off with a discussion of whether the proliferation of the ombudsman led to a healthy rivalry of models or diluted the concept.
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