Handbook on Development and Social Change
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Handbook on Development and Social Change

Edited by G. H. Fagan and Ronaldo Munck

This Handbook provides an accessible critical review of the complex issues surrounding development and social change today. With chapters from recognized experts, examining economic, political and social aspects, and covering key topics and developing regions, it goes beyond current theory and sets out the debates which will shape an approach better suited to the modern world.
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Chapter 13: Development in Africa as the global commodity super-cycle ends: African uprisings during and after ‘Africa Rising’

Patrick Bond


The conditions for reproduction of daily life in Africa have not improved as a result of the frenetic expansion of global capitalism, given that this process, for the past third of a century, has: entailed structural adjustment austerity imposed by the Bretton Woods Institutions; been carried out by dictatorships or, at best, semi-democratic regimes; had the effect of deepening Resource Curses due to extractive industry exploitation; and amplified other political, economic and ecological injustices. The period of so-called ‘secular stagnation’ which the world entered into in 2007, but whose roots go back several decades, has exacerbated all these problems. As a result, contrary to ‘Africa Rising’ rhetoric, from late 2010 a new wave of protests arose across the continent. African uncivil society activists – those willing to express frustration in means other than what are often termed the ‘invited spaces’ of official participation – have been protesting at an increasing rate.

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