Women, Business and Leadership
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Women, Business and Leadership

Gender and Organisations

Edited by Alexander-Stamatios Antoniou, Cary Cooper and Caroline Gatrell

This timely and comprehensive book analyses the role of women in leadership from both managerial and socio-emotional perspectives. The authors review the issues that affect real women in business and evaluate what can be done to support and develop women managers. Chapters explore topics such as the stereotyping of leading women, gender equality and discrimination, the glass ceiling and barriers to promotion, the work/home conflict, the gender pay gap and job insecurity, female authority and career development.
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Chapter 17: Pushback: negative career development experiences of United States post-tenure female faculty 1988–2011

Shani D. Carter and Cathyann D. Tully


Although a large body of literature exists regarding the difficulties women encounter in attempting to gain tenure, research does not exist regarding women’s post-tenure experiences as they attempt to attain the rank of full professor. This chapter examines career paths by gender, and demonstrates that women’s careers tend to plateau at the mid-ranks of faculty while men’s careers tend to lead to the highest rank. Psychological theories on Social Identity Threat are presented to explain the differences in career paths by gender for professors with equal productivity and human capital. The authors propose that women face an increasingly hostile work environment after they obtain tenure because some men feel increasingly threatened in their male identity when women are promoted. Career development implications are discussed.

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