Research Handbook on Child Migration
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Research Handbook on Child Migration

Edited by Jacqueline Bhabha, Jyothi Kanics and Daniel Senovilla Hernández

The scope and complexity of child migration have only recently emerged as a critical factors in global migration. This volume assembles for the first time a richly interdisciplinary body of work, drawing on contributions from renowned scholars, eminent practitioners and prominent civil society advocates from across the globe and from a wide range of different mobility contexts. Their invaluable pedagogical tools and research documents demonstrate the urgency and breadth of this important new aspect of international human mobility in our global age.
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Chapter 32: Child labor and migration: the exploitation of migrant children in the artisanal mines in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Roger-Claude Liwanga


Over the last three decades, there has been a high prevalence of child mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and particularly in the artisanal mines. The mines are considered artisanal because the mining exploitation is conducted through manual and rudimentary methods to extract and process mined minerals. Despite the adoption of national laws and policies prohibiting the worst forms of child labor, this chapter explains how children remain exposed to labor exploitation in the DRC’s mining industry. This chapter also highlights the migratory aspect of artisanal mining in the DRC, and provides a broad definition of the term “child migrant.” It equally addresses the dangerous working conditions in artisanal mines and their impacts on child miners. Correspondingly, the chapter concludes with an assessment of the protective measures for child miners in the DRC.

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