Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance
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Handbook of Democratic Innovation and Governance

Edited by Stephen Elstub and Oliver Escobar

Democratic innovations are proliferating in politics, governance, policy, and public administration. These new processes of public participation are reimagining the relationship between citizens and institutions. This Handbook advances understanding of democratic innovations, in theory and practice, by critically reviewing their importance throughout the world. The overarching themes are a focus on citizens and their relationship to these innovations, and the resulting effects on political equality. The Handbook therefore offers a definitive overview of existing research on democratic innovations, while also setting the agenda for future research and practice.
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Chapter 36: Analysing deliberative transformation: a multi-level approach incorporating Q methodology

Simon Niemeyer


This chapter concerns analysing deliberative transformation using mixed methods, and a multilevel model of deliberative transformation. The method links changing preferences, or choices among options to changes to the level of reasons (broadly construed, or considerations) and the relationship between these levels. Combining positivist and interpretive approaches permits systematic analysis of the dynamics of deliberative transformation, as well as scope for interpretation in ways that assist with the development of theory. Q methodology helps to assess the level of reasons, as a method for identifying discourses as intersubjective reference points for understanding deliberator’s ‘world view’ in relation to an issue. Combining analysis of preferences and reasons approaches, permits analysis of the deliberative impacts on reasoning. Together, these approaches serve to develop a rich understanding of deliberative transformation that informs the development of theory, as well as possibilities for further research and empirical testing.

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