Intention, Education and Orientation
Edited by Susana C. Santos, António Caetano, Craig Mitchell, Hans Landström and Alain Fayolle
Chapter 9: Assembling the puzzle: the need to assess both the internal and external side of corporate entrepreneurship
The assumption that corporate entrepreneurship activities can be internally oriented (‘intrapreneurship’) or externally oriented (‘exopreneurship’) is widely accepted. However, most of the existing empirical research makes use of the theoretical construct of entrepreneurial orientation as a holistic measure of corporate entrepreneurship, without any distinction on the nature of the activities carried out. The focus of this study is shifted on the internal and external nature of actions undertaken to trigger the entrepreneurial orientation. Furthermore, it analyses if and how the balance between internal and external activities might vary under certain environmental conditions. The aim of the study is reached by using survey data from 224 Italian medium-sized firms operating in manufacturing industries. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.
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