Handbook of Cultural Security
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Handbook of Cultural Security

Edited by Yasushi Watanabe

This Handbook aims to heighten our awareness of the unique and delicate interplay between ‘Culture’ and ‘Society’ in the age of globalization. With particular emphasis on the role of culture in the field of “non-traditional” security, and seeking to define what ‘being secure’ means in different contexts, this Handbook explores the emerging concept of cultural security, providing a platform for future debates in both academic and policy fields.
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Chapter 19: Cultural exchange, language competition, and China’s Confucius Institutes

Falk Hartig


This chapter analyses China’s Confucius Institutes (CIs) and their aim of promoting the learning of the Chinese language around the world. Facilitated by a rapidly increasing demand for Chinese language learning, CIs have established a presence across the globe and they have made valuable contributions to the learning and teaching of Chinese. Languages have become an arena of global competition as a means of winning hearts and minds and influence globally, and therefore play an important role in international relations in this age of globalization. The chapter looks at the language teaching of Confucius Institutes and highlights the potentials of Confucius Institutes in this regard, but at the same time it illustrates how practical issues on ground hamper the CIs’ potential to spread the Chinese language globally.

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