Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9/11
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Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9/11

Edited by David Martin Jones, Paul Schulte, Carl Ungerer and M. L.R. Smith

Almost two decades after the events of 9/11, this Handbook offers a comprehensive insight into the evolution and development of terrorism and insurgency since then. Gathering contributions from a broad range of perspectives, it both identifies new technological developments in terrorism and insurgency, and addresses the distinct state responses to the threat of political, or religiously motivated violence; not only in the Middle East and Europe, but also in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and North and South America.
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Chapter 22: Terrorism and counterterrorism in Europe

Brenda J. Lutz and James M. Lutz

Abstract

Europe, until recently, suffered from lower levels of terrorism than most other regions of the world. Prior to 9/11, nationalist groups and left-wing groups accounted for most of the terrorist attacks. With the increase of religious terrorism before and after 9/11, there have been increases in terrorist incidents, especially in 2016 and 2017, by Islamic extremists linked to Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The attacks by Islamic extremists have in turn been associated with increased activity by right-wing extremist groups. This chapter examines the evolution of religiously motivated terrorism in Europe since 9/11 and the related development of right wing extremism and its implications for political order.

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