A Path to Spatial Justice
Edited by Shelley Egoz, Karsten Jørgensen and Deni Ruggeri
Chapter 2: Landscape democracy: more than public participation?
Landscape democracy in relation to the European Landscape Convention is generally equated with public participation. However, landscapes are affected by a range of influences where little or no consideration is given to participation. Where groups of citizens feel their welfare or interests are ignored, public protests by action groups may result. The chapter aims to develop a theoretical understanding of how participatory processes and contestation are reflected in the landscape in relation to alternative ideas of democracy. Examples are taken from case studies undertaken over 40 years, examining to what extent and in what way planning has considered people’s landscape concerns in the urban landscape of Trondheim, Norway. A conceptual model is presented to illustrate how public participation and protest regarding landscape issues relate to other institutions characteristic of democracy, such as elective bodies, bureaucratic decisions and market forces, which affect outcomes in the landscape.
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