Edited by Helen Lawton Smith, Colette Henry, Henry Etzkowitz and Alexandra Poulovassilis
Chapter 16: Gender, race and entrepreneurship in the United States
New entrepreneurs in the United States are increasingly diverse: in 2014, more than 40 per cent of entrepreneurs identified themselves as African American, Hispanic, Asian or other non-white. Women-owned businesses comprise around a third of all businesses, employ more than 8 million workers (7 per cent of the private sector workforce), and generate more than $1.4 trillion in revenue. Through the lenses of gender and race, this chapter explores factors impeding and facilitating entrepreneurship among groups of women that are under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in the United States. In STEM-based innovations the most important resources are human resources. Therefore, it is imperative that talent be developed and efficiently utilized. However, in the United States, recent data indicate that this is not being done. This chapter focuses on STEM entrepreneurship in the United States through the lenses of gender and race.
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