Chapter 9: Chile: human agency against the odds
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This chapter traces the historical roots of Chile’s low tolerance for corruption, and analyzes how the country has successfully remained free from significant corruption scandals despite the greater access to information and more demands for transparency that often result in uncovering corruption in areas that were previously inaccessible to the press and civil society. The economic transformations undertaken under military rule (1973–1990) and consolidated once democracy was restored in 1990 have created a stronger civil society and a freer press, and have increased demands for transparency. There is growing information on corruption scandals as the number of social and political actors has increased and there is more competition for resources and markets. As power is more widely distributed, there is less opportunity for covert corrupt practices and more pressure to end former common corrupt practices. While opportunities for corrupt practices expand with economic growth—both per capita and total GDP—tolerance for corruption has remained low and a stronger civil society has raised probity standards in the public sector.

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