Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship
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Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Edited by Urban Gråsjö, Charlie Karlsson and Iréne Bernhard

Developed countries must be incredibly innovative to secure incomes and welfare so that they may successfully compete against international rivals. This book focuses on two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by incumbent firms and entrepreneurs, the role of geography and of open innovation.
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Chapter 8: Re-conceptualising entrepreneurial ecosystems: a theoretical exploration of evolution over space and time

Andrew Johnston, Paul Lassalle and Sakura Yamamura


While still in its infancy, the concept of the entrepreneurial ecosystem introduces a number of external factors that influence the new venture creation process, highlighting the fact that this process can involve a myriad of interdependent actors and environmental factors. While this may be a useful development, a lack of clarity as to its extent and make up has led to criticism that it is conceptually ad hoc. In order to address this criticism and contribute to this debate, this chapter draws on Giddens’ structuration approach to build a theoretical framework that captures and incorporates the co-constructed and co-evolutionary nature of entrepreneurial ecosystems, as well as highlighting the co-evolution of agents and structures, and drawing attention to the temporal and spatial dimensions of the ecosystem dynamics. We suggest that this lens could be a useful theoretical tool for considering the dynamics of the entrepreneurial ecosystem.

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