Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Experimental Economics
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Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Experimental Economics

Edited by Arthur Schram and Aljaž Ule

This volume offers a comprehensive review of experimental methods in economics. Its 21 chapters cover theoretical and practical issues such as incentives, theory and policy development, data analysis, recruitment, software and laboratory organization. The Handbook includes separate parts on procedures, field experiments and neuroeconomics, and provides the first methodological overview of replication studies and a novel set-valued equilibrium concept. As a whole, the combination of basic methods and current developments will aid both beginners and advanced experimental economists.
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Chapter 19: Real-effort tasks

Jeffrey Carpenter and Emiliano Huet-Vaughn


We review the use of real-effort tasks in economic experiments. To this point, the paradigm has been mostly used to model principal–agent relationships in the laboratory, the focus of our review. We first discuss the rationales for choosing between real and chosen effort when designing an experiment. To facilitate this discussion, we present a taxonomy of the common tasks that people have used, discuss some issues to keep in mind when implementing a real effort task and then survey the limited literature that compares the two methods. We end by offering a few recommendations on topics that could use additional investigation.

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