The Middle East in Transition
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The Middle East in Transition

The Centrality of Citizenship

Edited by Nils A. Butenschøn and Roel Meijer

The violent transitions that have dominated developments since the Arab Uprisings demonstrate deep-seated divisions in the conceptions of state authority and citizen rights and responsibilities. Analysing the Middle East through the lens of the ‘citizenship approach’, this book argues that the current diversity of crisis in the region can be ascribed primarily to the crisis in the relations between state and citizen. The volume includes theoretical discussions and case studies, and covers both Arab and non-Arab countries.
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Chapter 14: After the Arab Spring: toward women’s economic citizenship

Valentine M. Moghadam

Abstract

The Arab Spring reflected aspirations for new relations between states and citizens and between women and men. In most cases these aspirations were not realised, but in some countries women have continued to strive for empowerment and equality. Doing so requires overcoming outdated legal frameworks and social norms, along with limited opportunities for salaried employment. In turn, enhancing women’s economic participation through key social rights will have broader economic and societal benefits. Offering an expansive definition of citizenship, this chapter reviews the obstacles to women’s labour force participation and suggests a pathway toward their economic citizenship.

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