Research Handbook in Data Science and Law
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Research Handbook in Data Science and Law

Edited by Vanessa Mak, Eric Tjong Tjin Tai and Anna Berlee

The use of data in society has seen an exponential growth in recent years. Data science, the field of research concerned with understanding and analyzing data, aims to find ways to operationalize data so that it can be beneficially used in society, for example in health applications, urban governance or smart household devices. The legal questions that accompany the rise of new, data-driven technologies however are underexplored. This book is the first volume that seeks to map the legal implications of the emergence of data science. It discusses the possibilities and limitations imposed by the current legal framework, considers whether regulation is needed to respond to problems raised by data science, and which ethical problems occur in relation to the use of data. It also considers the emergence of Data Science and Law as a new legal discipline.
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Chapter 11: Data-driven regulation and governance in smart cities

Sofia Ranchordás and Abram Klop

Abstract

This chapter discusses the concept of data-driven regulation and governance in the context of smart cities by describing how these urban centres harness these technologies to collect and process information about citizens, traffic, urban planning or waste production. It describes how several smart cities throughout the world currently employ data science, big data, AI, Internet of Things (IoT), and predictive analytics to improve the efficiency of their services and decision-making. Furthermore, this chapter analyses the legal challenges of employing these technologies to influence or determine the content of local regulation and governance. This chapter explores in particular three specific challenges: the disconnect between traditional administrative law frameworks and data-driven regulation and governance; the effects of the privatization of public services and citizen needs due to the growing outsourcing of smart cities technologies to private companies; and the limited transparency and accountability that characterizes data-driven administrative processes. This chapter draws on a review of interdisciplinary literature on smart cities and offers illustrations of data-driven regulation and governance practices from different jurisdictions.

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