Lessons for the EU
Edited by Francis Cheneval and Mónica Ferrin
Chapter 7: Accommodating rivalling claims to citizenship in federations: lessons for the EU
This chapter offers a comparative perspective on citizenship and identity in Switzerland, Canada and Spain and compares these cases in relation to the EU. Switzerland has managed to bring together diverse identities in a historical process that has seen the transformation of confederalism into federalism; Canada has evolved towards an advanced form of federalism while dealing with internal minorities and First Nations and a major constitutional reform; Spain, in parallel to democratisation, has developed a regionalised model with some federal characteristics in a political context marked by political tensions and violence. Similar to these cases, the EU has to deal with diversity and can learn from three variables that are compared among the cases: constitutional inclusion of constituent units, accommodation of political identities and asymmetrical institutional arrangements in order to deal with internal minorities. The chapter concludes with some specific policy recommendations.
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