Citizenship in Segmented Societies
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Citizenship in Segmented Societies

Lessons for the EU

Edited by Francis Cheneval and Mónica Ferrin

European Union citizenship is increasingly relevant in the context of both the refugee crisis and Brexit, yet the issue of citizenship is neither new nor unique to the EU. Using historical, political and sociological perspectives, the authors explore varied experiences of combining multiple identities into a single sense of citizenship. Cases are taken from Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Spain, Switzerland and Turkey. These examples of communities being successfully incorporated into one entity are exceptionally useful for addressing the challenges facing the EU today.
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Chapter 9: Conclusion

Francis Cheneval and Mónica Ferrín


This chapter contains the main lessons from the case studies and the integrative chapters on centralistic and federalist solutions to conflicting claims to citizenship and identity. The models of Canada and Switzerland come closest to the EU integration process as they protect diversity while upholding common institutions. But the chapter also highlights the volume’s findings concerning unitary states. The strategy of de-complexification was not successful in creating a homogenous nation in Estonia, Turkey or Czechia and contradicts the declared values of the EU. However, a diversified political identity can be constructed within a unitary state, because not all issues that concern citizens relate to ethnicity and the state can accommodate many claims by protecting public goods. How individual and collective political rights can be balanced is something that both unitary and federal states struggle with from different starting points.

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