Gender and Generational Division in EU Citizenship
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Gender and Generational Division in EU Citizenship

Edited by Trudie Knijn and Manuela Naldini

Family law, gender equality, care arrangements and the consequences of demographic change have long been on the agenda of the European Union. However, these are coloured by national and cultural factors more than any other disputes, and form a barrier to the equalising of status for European citizens. Using an interdisciplinary approach, and bringing together law scholars, political scientists and sociologists, this book looks at the implications of the categorisation of identity in the European Union, and what they mean for the realisation of citizens’ rights throughout the EU.
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Chapter 5: The role of reproductive rights and family policies in defining parenthood

Joëlle Long, Manuela Naldini and Arianna Santero


This chapter focuses on the main social and legal barriers faced by parents, when living, moving or travelling within the European Union. Six European countries considered to be representative of different family law and social policy models are analysed and compared with a non-EU country (Israel). Even though some convergences appear among countries in the progressive legal recognition of different family forms and in the support of work–family balance, the cross-national differences are still significant in both family policies and family law. More traditional countries, such as Croatia and Italy exhibit low family policy support coupled with ‘prohibitionist’ rules in access to parenthood, while the less traditional ones such as Denmark and the Netherlands, show higher family support and wider legal options to become a parent. In Spain and Israel, wider legal options to be recognized as a parent co-exist with comparatively low public support for families. Other developments are observable in Hungary, characterized by relatively high public support for families and narrow legal recognition for family diversity forms.

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