Trade Unions and Migrant Workers
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Trade Unions and Migrant Workers

New Contexts and Challenges in Europe

Edited by Stefania Marino, Judith Roosblad and Rinus Penninx

This timely book analyses the relationship between trade unions, immigration and migrant workers across eleven European countries in the period between the 1990s and 2015. It constitutes an extensive update of a previous comparative analysis – published by Rinus Penninx and Judith Roosblad in 2000 – that has become an important reference in the field. The book offers an overview of how trade unions manage issues of inclusion and solidarity in the current economic and political context, characterized by increasing challenges for labour organizations and rising hostility towards migrants.
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Chapter 3: Migration and its regulation in an integrating Europe

Rinus Penninx


The historical development of immigration in Europe, its geographical pattern, the types of migration and the characteristics of migrants are described in the first part of this chapter. It concludes that immigration has become a relevant issue in all EU countries, though different in time, form and intensity. Immigration policies of receiving countries greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Integration policies influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination and their access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines three different migration and integration regimes in Europe. Trade unions in European countries are thus confronted with different forms of migration, with different migration and integration regimes, and with different types of migrants. Their attitudes and actions on immigration and migrants should be seen in the light of such different starting positions.

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