Services, Experiences and Innovation
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Services, Experiences and Innovation

Integrating and Extending Research

Edited by Ada Scupola and Lars Fuglsang

Whilst innovation has traditionally focused on manufacturing, recently research surrounding service innovation has been flourishing. Furthermore, as consumers become ever more sophisticated and look for experiences, a research field investigating this topic has also emerged. This book aims to develop an integrated approach to the field of experience and services through innovation by showing that it is necessary to take several factors into account. As such, it makes a substantial and compelling contribution to the interdependencies between innovation, services and experience research.
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Chapter 4: Service innovation – organizational and systemic approaches

Marja Toivonen


This chapter discusses four central perspectives to service innovation: managing innovation processes, taking a strategic stance to innovation, promoting user-based and employee-driven innovation, and answering the need for systemic innovations. The chapter shows that Jon Sundbo has contributed in a notable way to research in all these areas. He has introduced the idea of balanced empowerment to emphasize the importance of strategy in the inducement and control of innovation activities. His framework of strategic reflexivity focuses on the top-down processes that integrate distributed novelties. On the other hand, customer encounter–based innovation supplements the picture by analysing the bottom-up processes in which grassroots employees transmit users’ ideas into the organization. The concept of after-innovation points out that the active role of users also continues after the launch. At the broader societal level, Sundbo has participated in the discussion about the systemic nature of innovations by analysing value chain innovations.

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