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Self-Employment as Precarious Work

A European Perspective

Wieteke Conen and Joop Schippers

Since the 1970s the long term decline in self-employment has slowed – and even reversed in some countries – and the prospect of ‘being your own boss’ is increasingly topical in the discourse of both the general public and within academia. Traditionally, self-employment has been associated with independent entrepreneurship, but increasingly it has become a form of precarious work. This book utilises evidence-based information to address both the current and future challenges of this trend as the nature of self-employment changes, as well as to demonstrate where, when and why self-employment has emerged as precarious work in Europe.
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Index

age of the self-employed 97, 99100, 102, 114, 163, 165, 166, 170, 173, 17783, 190, 202, 205, 208, 264, 265
ageing workforce 1712
alternative work arrangements see nonstandard work
atypical employment see nonstandard work
Austria 10, 16, 30, 32, 34, 86103, 175, 181, 211, 24042, 2456, 248, 254, 262, 264
bogus self-employment see false self-employment
bridge employment 170, 173
collective bargaining 33, 135, 1456, 161, 222, 251, 2545
collective representation 4, 16, 17, 1456, 148, 21635, 262, 267
competition 33, 117, 119, 124, 129, 1356, 141, 156, 157, 160, 161, 187, 192, 266
law 13, 43, 47, 254
continental corporatist countries 10, 15, 29, 35, 129, 192, 222
see also Austria; Germany; Netherlands
contingent work 34
country differences 910, 1517, 2338, 44, 8889, 108, 1279, 181, 240, 242, 2524, 2623
see also Austria; Denmark; Finland; Germany; Italy; Netherlands; Nordic countries; Norway; Sweden; UK
Denmark 10, 2930, 32, 34, 1612, 165, 166, 175, 181
demographics 15, 55, 1712, 18990, 250
dependent self-employment 41, 43, 47, 132, 138, 220
disability insurance see social protection/risk/security
earnings 4, 68, 33, 545, 68, 80, 159, 263
related contribution rate 58
education
level of 158, 181, 186, 19091, 198, 200, 201, 204, 206, 208, 211, 226
sector 75, 77, 81, 1636, 194
training and 14, 357, 68, 79, 82, 222, 229
employability 4, 6, 13, 14, 357, 261, 265
employers organisations 218, 267
employment relations 3, 413, 145, 193, 222
entrepreneurship 12, 11, 16, 28, 40, 46, 48, 65, 69, 71, 778, 82, 867, 9092, 102, 103, 109, 122, 129, 132, 1535, 174, 187, 188, 200, 216, 266, 268
European Quality of Life Survey 810
European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 36, 132, 154, 161, 162, 163, 165, 166
false self-employment 6, 13, 1617, 41, 43, 645, 67, 132, 1358, 15367, 210, 251, 2545, 261, 263, 267
family and self-employment see work, and family life
female self-employment 313, 42, 45, 735, 89, 93, 97, 144, 157, 164, 181, 201, 204, 263
see also gender differences
financial
crisis 67, 7082, 139, 2623
resilience 6, 10, 115, 116, 118, 120, 121, 122, 262
Finland 10, 30, 32, 34, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166
flexibility 15, 2338, 65, 69, 98, 1368, 147, 155, 159, 170, 186, 188, 19091, 221, 256, 261, 265
forms of 245, 153, 156
gender differences 313, 42, 45, 735, 89, 93, 97, 144, 157, 164, 166, 181, 200, 201, 204, 206, 263
Germany 910, 15, 16, 17, 30, 32, 34, 557, 889, 10829, 1712, 1745, 181, 186211, 24045, 248, 253, 262, 264
governmental policies/debate regarding self-employment 2, 24, 38, 109, 26061, 2668
in the Netherlands 109
in Sweden 1535, 167
in the UK 65, 66, 7071
health 170, 174, 175
index on activity limitations (GALI) 176, 17980, 1823
insurance 110, 112, 155, 210, 244, 252
safety and 43, 445
sector 77, 94, 136, 163, 165, 166
self-perceived 176, 17983
heterogeneity of the self-employed 2, 69, 79, 80, 81, 86, 91, 102, 132, 158, 190, 200, 216, 21820, 2645
households 5, 7, 8, 910, 115, 120, 128, 265
characteristics of 50, 1223, 173
income 50, 116, 11718, 18081
low-income 6, 8, 95, 1756, 178, 18082
resources 7, 910, 176, 179, 18082
human capital 14, 358, 82, 170, 174, 182, 200
hybrid employment 1718, 64, 92, 102, 145, 239, 242, 247, 252, 2556, 268
contract 136
immigrants and self-employment see migrant self-employment
income 2, 5, 610, 37, 4951, 54, 589, 68, 95, 100102, 110, 115, 116, 118, 120, 128, 159, 17582, 187, 191, 1958, 200204, 206, 221, 2245, 262, 265, 269
disposable 7, 525, 58, 175
inadequacy 4, 610, 261
household 5, 25, 50, 116, 11718, 128, 176, 18081, 262
independent professionals 16, 88, 102, 133, 13948, 262
industry see sector of industry
insecurity 6, 1314, 53, 54, 57, 82, 147, 193, 222, 239, 242, 261, 269
insider-outsider theory 217, 220, 2213, 234, 235
insurance see social protection
interest organisations 17, 21719, 2213, 228, 2324
in-work poverty see poverty
Italy 10, 15, 16, 29, 3034, 889, 13348, 1712, 175, 181, 203, 262
jobs
conditions 1, 3, 17, 367, 43, 46, 47, 69, 138, 148, 155, 160, 187, 189, 1923, 195, 21011, 251, 256
contracts 4, 25, 367, 43, 46, 137, 153, 249
quality 24, 69, 71, 7882, 262
labour
force survey 30, 32, 66, 70, 72, 74, 76, 77, 89, 1389, 158, 160
market flexibility see flexibility
process, control over 4, 109, 115, 220, 224, 2278
legislation 11, 13, 15, 414, 51, 55, 65, 112, 1338, 143, 144, 1547, 208, 254
life-long-learning 36, 37, 68, 82
migrant self-employment 15, 17, 76, 78, 156, 161, 167, 186211, 2634
motives 17, 31, 90, 94, 96, 98102, 1734, 1778, 180, 182, 189, 262, 264
necessity-driven 27, 6971, 79, 102, 103, 170, 1734, 17680, 182, 183, 2645
Netherlands 10, 15, 16, 30, 324, 889, 10829, 172, 175, 181, 216, 217, 24042, 2468, 2523, 262
nonstandard work 34, 137, 142, 144
Nordic countries 16, 154, 1616, 263
see also Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden
Norway 30, 32, 161, 162, 163, 165, 166
occupational
pension see pensions
position 31, 64, 67, 68, 756, 8082, 108, 114, 15961, 198201, 2034, 207, 209, 220, 226, 234
Office for National Statistics (ONS) 66, 70, 72, 74, 76, 77
older workers 17, 17083, 2634
part-time self-employment 73, 80, 81, 87, 92, 93, 1636, 195, 239, 249
pensions 11, 15, 4860, 11012, 118, 1268, 1367, 144, 155, 17083, 2245, 240, 2428, 250, 2523, 2634
occupational 111, 126
savings 1112, 11112, 115, 116, 1223, 126, 2245
poverty
in-work 68, 335, 175
in old age 1011, 1516, 4860, 110, 125, 128, 2634
precariousness/precarious work 26, 1113
definition 5
dimensions 46, 1113, 109, 115, 12025, 17880, 1934, 196, 217, 22021, 261
measurement 5, 6, 13, 116, 119
qualitative research 16, 11214, 117, 120, 1229, 140, 144, 145, 147, 187, 189
quality
of life in older age (CASP-12) 176, 17980, 1823
of life survey see European Quality of Life Survey
of work 2, 4, 80, 81, 262
see also jobs, quality
replacement rate 15, 49, 59, 110, 245, 264
representation see collective representation
retirement 17083
saving adequacy 123
sector of industry 17, 23, 28, 31, 40, 64, 66, 75, 77, 8082, 94, 97, 108, 114, 141, 153, 1567, 163, 181, 186, 189, 1989, 201, 203, 204, 207, 238, 264
social-democratic state 10, 15, 29, 129, 263
social protection/risk/security 1012, 1516, 18, 33, 35, 4047, 5960, 112, 11529, 1368, 1435, 147, 1547, 239, 2516, 262, 266, 269
Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) 175, 179, 181
Sweden 10, 15, 17, 29, 30, 32, 34, 15367, 172, 175, 181, 263, 264
trade unions 3, 4, 5, 17, 33, 72, 108, 109, 1456, 148, 156, 157, 167, 21719, 2214, 228, 231, 233, 235, 263, 267
training 2, 14, 357, 68, 79, 82, 193, 222, 229, 234
unemployment 3, 11, 1416, 24, 25, 47, 6972, 80, 82, 95, 99, 101, 144, 173, 187, 189, 210, 252
unions see trade unions
UK 10, 15, 24, 30, 32, 34, 6482, 889, 1712, 262, 263, 264
welfare states 9, 11, 13, 15, 24, 29, 35, 109, 129, 171, 240, 243, 266
women see gender differences
work
characteristics 1, 3, 17, 367, 43, 46, 47, 69, 138, 148, 155, 160, 187, 189, 1923, 195, 21011, 251, 256
and family life 31, 50, 94, 98, 173, 174, 263