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COMMENTARY ON THE ENERGY CHARTER TREATY

RAFAEL LEAL-ARCAS

The Commentary on the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) provides a unique, article-by-article, textual analysis of this important international agreement. The ECT outlines a multilateral framework for cross-border cooperation in the energy sector based on the principles of open competitive markets and sustainable development.
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CONTENTS

Extended contents

List of contributors

Acknowledgements

Table of cases

Table of legislation

Introduction

Rafael Leal-Arcas

Preamble

Antonio Morelli

PART I    DEFINITION AND PURPOSE

Article 1 Definitions

Dylan Geraets and Leonie Reins

Article 2 Purpose of the Treaty

Leonie Reins

PART II    COMMERCE

Article 3 International markets

Pierre Serra

Article 4 Non-derogation from WTO Agreement

Pierre Serra

Article 5 Trade-related investment measures

Pierre Serra

Article 6 Competition

Pierre Serra

Article 7 Transit

Cătălin Gabriel Stănescu

Article 8 Transfer of technology

Beatriz Huarte Melgar

Article 9 Access to capital

Beatriz Huarte Melgar

PART III    INVESTMENT PROMOTION AND PROTECTION

Article 10 Promotion, protection and treatment of investments

Diego Mejía-Lemos

Article 11 Key personnel

Diego Mejía-Lemos

Article 12 Compensation for losses

Diego Mejía-Lemos

Article 13 Expropriation

Diego Mejía-Lemos

Article 14 Transfers related to investments

Francesco Montanaro

Article 15 Subrogation

Apurva Mudliar

Article 16 Relation to other agreements

Francesco Montanaro

Article 17 Non-application of Part III in certain circumstances

Apurva Mudliar

PART IV    MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Article 18 Sovereignty over energy resources

Peter Vajda and Varvara Aleksić

Tina Hunter

Article 19 Environmental aspects

Peter Vajda and Varvara Aleksić

Tina Hunter

Article 20 Transparency

Gloria Alvarez

Article 21 Taxation

Gloria Alvarez

Article 22 State and privileged enterprises

Costantino Grasso

Tina Hunter

Article 23 Observance by sub-national authorities

Costantino Grasso

Article 24 Exceptions

Costantino Grasso

Gloria Alvarez

Article 25 Economic Integration Agreements

Costantino Grasso

Gloria Alvarez

PART V    DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

Article 26 Settlement of disputes between an investor and a contracting party

Fernando Dias Simões

Article 27 Settlement of disputes between contracting parties

Crina Baltag

Article 28 Exclusion of certain provisions of the ECT from the settlement of disputes between contracting parties

Crina Baltag

PART VI    TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

Article 29 Interim provisions on trade-related matters

Max Baumgart

Article 30 Developments in international trading arrangements

Silke Goldberg, Naomi Lisney and Anne Eckenroth

Article 31 Energy-related equipment

Silke Goldberg, Naomi Lisney and Anne Eckenroth

Article 32 Transitional arrangements

Silke Goldberg, Naomi Lisney and Anne Eckenroth

PART VII    STRUCTURE AND INSTITUTIONS

Article 33 Energy Charter Protocols and Declarations

Silke Goldberg, Naomi Lisney and Anne Eckenroth

Article 34 Energy Charter Conference

Cătălin Gabriel Stănescu

Article 35 Secretariat

Cătălin Gabriel Stănescu

Article 36 Voting

Cătălin Gabriel Stănescu

Article 37 Funding principles

Cătălin Gabriel Stănescu

PART VIII    FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 38 Signature

Odysseas G. Repousis

Article 39 Ratification, acceptance or approval

Odysseas G. Repousis

Article 40 Application to territories

Odysseas G. Repousis

Article 41 Accession

Odysseas G. Repousis

Article 42 Amendments

Antonio Morelli

Article 43 Association agreements

Antonio Morelli

Article 44 Entry into force

Antonio Morelli

Article 45 Provisional application

Antonio Morelli

Article 46 Reservations

Antonio Morelli

Article 47 Withdrawal

Antonio Morelli

Article 48 Status of Annexes and Decisions

Leonardo Borlini and Marina Petri

Article 49 Depositary

Leonardo Borlini and Marina Petri

Article 50 Authentic texts

Leonardo Borlini and Marina Petri

Appendix: Gas transit in Eurasia: transit issues between Russia and the European Union and the role of the Energy Charter

Andrey A. Konoplyanik

Index